Friday, September 20, 2019

Estate Management Essays Professional Codes Of Conduct

Estate Management Essays Professional Codes Of Conduct Critically discuss the contribution which codes of conduct issued by professional bodies such as RICS can make to the behaviour and conduct of their members who are either employees in privatepractice or employees in organisations. Individually and,in association, collectively, the professions strike a bargain with societyin which they exchange competence and integrity against the trust of client andcommunity, relative freedom from lay supervision and interference, protectionagainst unqualified competition as well as substantial remuneration and highersocial status. Professional codes of conduct, when rigorouslycommunicated and enforced, contribute substantially to the proper behaviour andconduct of members of the organisations which issue them. Rueschemeyers introductoryreference (1983, cited in Eraut, 1994) to the bargain that professional organisationsstrike with society furnishes a context for critically evaluating the conceptof professional codes of conduct which can be considered to at least partiallyformalize the bargain with society as well as the effects of these codes onthe behaviour and conduct of members of professional organisations who areengaged in private practice or who are employees of other organisations. To establish afoundation for the analysis, the professional organisation will be compared andcontrasted with other types of organisations, and the concept of codes ofconduct will be explored. The focus will then shift to a discussion of theeffects of codes of conduct issued by professional organisations on memberbehaviour. Finally, conclusions will be presented. The Professional Organisation: Comparisonand Contrast with Other Organisations Robbins(1998) defines an organisation as: A consciously coordinated socialunit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuousbasis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Daft (1998) describes organisations as (1) social entities that (2) are goal directed, (3) aredesigned as deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems, and (4)are linked to the external environment. Organisations are formed for a varietyof reasons including those that are started for public and private purposes,for pursuing business and social goals, and for profit or non-profit results. A professionalbody meets the criteria for an organisation as identified by Robbins andDaft. The professional body is a specific type of organisation, usually non-profit, that exists to further aparticular profession, to protect both the public interest and the interests ofprofessionals (, n.d.). The ASEP Newsletter (1998) claimsthat professional organisations are formed and exist for the purpose ofrepresenting the profession, adding that this type of organisation consistssolely of members who are, or intend to be, working in the profession, or havebeen allowed special membership status. A fuller description of these types of organisations is offered by the Canadian Security Administrators (2004), which states in this quoted extract that a professional body: .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  admits members primarily on the basis of their educationalqualifications; .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  requires its members to comply with the professional standards ofcompetence and ethics prescribed by the organisation; and .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  has disciplinary powers, including the power to suspend or expel amember. Theconcept of profession is important to the understanding of professionalorganisations. A profession can be described in terms of its features whichinclude representation by a professional organisation, adherence toprofessional ethics and standards, and self-regulation of such functions aseducation, training, and certification or licensure in the profession. (ASEPNewsletter, 1998). Professions are generally identified by occupationalgroup (e.g. doctors, attorneys, surveyors, nurses, consultants, writers, lawenforcement officers). Membership in a professional organisation is often arequirement to legally practice in the profession (, n.d.). Aprofessional body differs from other types of organisations in that most othersare comprised of members from a variety of professions. These memberscoordinate their individual competencies to achieve an organisations ends. Asingle organisation may have as its members people from such diverseprofessions as doctors, lawyers, clerks, labourers, and engineers. Thisarrangement is certainly necessary, but it has one drawback. A typical organisation is very insular with regard to specific professions. For example, engineers may only interact with other engineers within the organisation. They have little opportunity to exchange knowledge about their profession with engineers in other organisations. On the other hand, a typical professional body, through its focus on a single profession, provides a forum for this type of exchange. One ofthe many professional bodies is the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors(RICS) which promotes itself as the largest organisation for professionals inproperty, land, construction, and related environmental issues worldwide withthe purpose of promoting best practices, regulation and consumer protection tothe public and to businesses. RICS, which claims 110,000 members worldwide, isthe leading source of property related knowledge, providing independent,impartial advice to governments and global organisations. (RICS Rules ofConduct, 2004) Codes of Conduct: The Concept Codes of conduct in professional organisationsprovide a type of social control of expertise, according to Eraut (1994). Thesecodes help to protect clients against incompetence, carelessness, andexploitation. Eraut traces codes of conduct to nineteenth century Britain andthe United States where, at the time, government control was not adequatelyprotecting clients. He claims that experts agreed that a measure of controlmust be vested in the professionals themselves to be effective and, thus, theprofessional organisation was born. A Code ofConduct is a written guide that says how people should behave. It setsstandards of behaviour it says what you should do and should not do. (Crime andMisconduct Commission, n.d.) Organisations establish codes of conduct tocorrect errors of personal equation, according to Miner (2002). Shafritz(1998) describes the term code of conduct through its component words: code,which he defines as laws, regulations, rules, standards, statutes, and conduct,which he defines as bearing, behaviour, demeaneor, and deportment. His fulldefinition for code of conduct is a: specifically identified list of behaviorsthat [has] been deemed appropriate or inappropriate enough to have beenincorporated into either laws or regulations or policy statements. He addsthat a code of conduct narrowly defines what one is to do in a given positionor set of circumstances. The term code of conduct isfrequently used interchangeably with the term code of ethics, but thetwo have different meanings according to Shafritz (1998). Codes of conductoffer specific directions on behaviours expected under various conditions;codes of ethics furnish a set of aspirational standards by which to live andwork. Codes of ethics are designed to inspire. Codes of conduct are designedto require. Organisations that have instituted codes of conduct include for-profit businesses, industry groups, unions, special interest groups, government agencies, schools and universities, and professional bodies. Not unexpectedly, a code of conduct for a professional body outlines the acceptable or desirable behaviours and practices of a particular profession such as doctors, pharmacists, lawyers, and ethicists (EthicsScan Canada Ltd., n.d.). Steadman et al. (1994, cited inEraut, 1994), identified four sets of values affecting conduct: legal values,values of the profession, values of individual professionals, and (foremployees of organisations) values of the employing organisations. The firm Deloitteand Touche (2003) offers comprehensive guidance for developing codes ofconduct. In stating that there is no pre-packaged verbiage for a code ofconduct, the firm suggests that it be written in positive, rather than negativeterms, to help promote positive reception by the intended audience and thus amore like positive outcome in terms of conduct. The code of conduct should: .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  employ simple language, be concise, and be readily understood; .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  not be written in legalistic terms but, rather, in terms ofexpected behaviours; .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  apply to everyone in the organisation; and .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  be revised as needed to reflect changes. Deloitte Touche recommends more than fifty topics that may be included in codes ofconduct. Some of these that may particularly applicable to codes of conduct forprofessional organisations include client service, confidentiality, compliancewith professional standards, independence, conflicts of interest, licensure,fraud, personal conduct, and privacy. In addition, and importantly, the firmrecommends that, in addition to stating expected behaviours, codes of conductshould include enforcement and implementation mechanisms that address thenotion of accountability and discipline for unacceptable behaviour. The RICS,which was highlighted earlier, has a comprehensive, 56-page code of conductcontaining many of the topics recommended by Deloitte Touche withsections focused on personal and professional standards, conduct ofprofessional activities and business, practice details and co-operation,conflicts of interest, impartiality, and independence (Royal Institution ofChartered Surveyors Rules of Conduct, 2004). In addition, and as suggested by Deloitte Touche, the RICS has issued a 28-page supplement to the code of conduct specifying disciplinary rules. These rules state the constitution of disciplinary bodies, possible contraventions (initial processes, rights, and powers), and powers of disciplinary bodies. (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Disciplinary Rules, 2004). Professional Codes of Conduct: Effects onMember Behaviour and Conduct Lindsay, Irvine, and Lindsay (1996, citedin Messick, 1999) write: failure to seriouslymonitor, measure and reward (punish) the performance of individuals on theethical plane will leave codes of conduct operating in a vacuum, of littleuse in actually promoting ethical behavior. But what mechanisms take place in shaping thedesired behaviours of members of professional organisations? Operantconditioning and social learning theories help to explain how codes of conductcan help in encouraging desired behaviours. Operantconditioning, which contends that behaviour is a function of theconsequences of the behaviour, suggests that desired voluntary behaviour leadsto a reward or prevents a punishment; in social learning peoplelearnthrough observation and direct experience (Robbins, 1998). Codes of conduct,by specifying the desired behaviours as well as associated rewards andpunishment, guide those affected into behaving as desired (operant conditioning).The enforcement of the code of conduct against those who violate its rules, andthe publicity of the consequences, serves as a model to others on properbehaviour (social learning). Reinforcement is essential to obtainingdesired behaviours. There are four reinforcement methods available to shapedesired behaviours through reinforcement: positive reinforcement, negativereinforcement, punishment, and extinction (Robbins, 1998): .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  positive reinforcement involves following abehaviour with something positive; .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  negative reinforcement involves terminatingor withdrawing something unpleasant; .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  punishment involves creating anunpleasant condition to eliminate an undesirable behaviour; and .  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  extinction involves eliminating areinforcement that maintains a behaviour. These reinforcementmethods can be applied by professional bodies in encouraging desired behavioursamong their members. For instance, an organisation could offer annualrecognition to those members who have exhibited highly-desirable behaviours(positive reinforcement). The organisation could impose, then later withdraw, asanction against a member who violated a minor rule (negative reinforcement).The organisation could expel a member who flagrantly violated a major rule(punishment). And, finally, a professional organisation could cease referringpotential clients to members who have violated conduct rules (extinction). In addition to enforcement, a code ofconduct must be rigorously promoted to be effective lest it becomes justanother dust-collecting document on the shelves of those for whom thebehavioural messages are directed. Over time, if conduct rules are not rigorouslypromoted, the expected behaviours can become less and less important in makingdaily decisions on proper behaviour. EthicsScan Canada Ltd. (n.d.) recommendsthat codes of conduct be promoted continuously. For example, members should be required to acknowledge annually, in writing, that they have read and understand the code of conduct. A suggested method for promoting a code of conduct involves discussing it as part of annual performance appraisals or scheduled meetings. These meetings might include introducing case studies followed by discussions of proper behaviour and problems that might occur. Members of professional bodies can beself-employed or employees of other organisations. Whilst codes of conduct mayserve as the sole behavioural guidance for self-employed professionals inprivate practice, employees of other organisations may be subject to two setsof conduct codes one presented by the professional body and one by theiremploying organisations. When the conduct specified in these codes is aligned,employees typically will not experience conflict; however, when the employeesexpected conduct as required by their employers differs from that expected bytheir professional bodies, a conflict exists and employees face potentialdilemmas. For instance, in some cases, professional organisations sanction members who do not adhere to their professional codes of ethics, yet the same members face disciplinary action from their employers if they should disclose information about a breach of public interest (Guy, 1990, citing Dozier and Miceli 1985; Archer, 1986). This dilemma could result in an employee deciding to violate either the rules of his or her employer or those of the professional body. To aid employees facing this type of dilemma, both the employer and professional body should have experts available for consultation. Conclusion Properly written, promoted, and enforced,codes of conduct can be powerful tools in helping to ensure desired behavioursfrom members of professional bodies. Nevertheless, whilst beneficial, codes ofconduct cannot be viewed as a total solution for ensuring the proper behaviourof members of professional organisations. Shafritz (1998) writes: Codes of conductdo not represent professional assurancesabout high moral standards. Rather, they provide direction to those whoseconduct they govern. Codes of conduct are minimalistic prohibitions againstunquestionably subversive or criminal acts. The primary benefit of codes ofconduct lies in augmenting government laws and regulations in promoting desiredbehaviours in the professions. In closing, it may be that professional organisationsare in the fore among organisations in terms of success with codes of conduct.According to Miner (2002), [b]usiness can well learnfrom the professions when it comes to maintaining standards. Professionalbodies seem to take quite seriously the role they serve in ensuring thatclients of professional bodies are protected against incompetence,carelessness, and exploitation. References Archer,Lawrence (1986) The moral minority. Canadian Business 59:56-59, 1986.Cited in Guy, 1990. ASEPNewsletter (1998)What is a profession? March 1998. CanadianSecurities Administrators (2004) Acceptance ofcertain foreign professional boards as a professional organisation, January 19, 2004. Crime andMisconduct Commission (n.d.) Developing a code of conduct. Availablefrom:[Accessed: August 5, 2005]. Daft,Richard L. (1998) Organisation theory and design. Cincinnati, Ohio:South-Western College Publishing, 1998. Deloitte Touche (2003) Guidelines for writing a code of ethics/conduct.Deloitte Touche Corporate Governance Services, 2003. Dozier,Janelle Brinker and Miceli, Marcia P. (1985) Potential predictors ofwhistle-blowing: A prosocial behavior perspective. Academy of ManagementReview 10:823-36. Cited in Guy, 1990. Eraut, Michael(1994) Developing professional knowledge and competence. London: FalmerPress, 1994. EthicsScanCanada Ltd. (n.d.) What is a code of professionalconduct? Available from:[Accessed: August 5, 2005]. Guy,Mary E. (1990) Ethical decision making in everyday work situations.Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books, 1990. Professional body or professional organisation. Available from:[Accessed: August 4, 2005]. Lindsay, R. M., Irvine, V. B., and Lindsay, L. M. (1996)Instilling ethical behavior in organisations: A survey ofCanadian companies. Journal of Business Ethics, 15: 393-407, 1996.Cited in Messick, 1999. Messick,David M. (1999) Sanctioning systems, decision frames, and cooperation. AdministrativeScience Quarterly, December 1, 1999. Miner, JohnB. (2002) Organisational behaviour: Foundations, theories, and analyses.New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Robbins,Stephen P. (1998) Organisational behavior: concepts, controversies,applications. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International,Inc., 1998. RoyalInstitution of Chartered Surveyors (2004) Disciplinary rules. London:RICS, 2004. RoyalInstitution of Chartered Surveyors (2004) Rules of conduct. London:RICS, 2004. Rueschemeyer,D. (1983) Professional autonomy and the social control of expertise, inDingwall, R. and Lewis, P., eds. The Sociology of the Professions: Lawyers,Doctors and Others. London: Macmillan, 1983. Cited in Eraut, 1994. Shafritz,Jay M. (1998) International encyclopedia of publicpolicy and administration: A-C. Volume 1.Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1998. Steadman,S. et al. (1994) Ethics in occupational standards and S/NVQs. Researchand Development Report. Sheffield: Employment Department, Methods StrategyUnit, 1994. Cited in Eraut, 1994.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Christianity and Abortion :: Papers

Christianity and Abortion The Christian belief in the sanctity of life is based on the teachings of famous Christians and on what they read in the bible, the teachings of Jesus. A quote from the bible which seems to support the view that abortion is wrong is from Psalm 139:13, verses 15-16,    â€Å"You created every part of me; You put me together in my mother’s womb†¦ When my bones were being formed, Carefully put me together in my mother’s womb. When I was growing there in secret, You knew that I was there – You saw me before I was born. The days allotted to me Had all been recorded in your book, Before any of them ever began.†    This seems to be saying that god has already begun to have an influence on the life of a person before they are even born. The life of a person is already unique and god has already given them their own identity before they are born. If this is true, and the quote seems to be saying that it is, then abortion would have to be seen as a crime on the same level as murder. There are no good grounds for murder, one of the Ten Commandments says,    â€Å"Do not commit murder.†    So, if we were to consider only this quote then we would have to see abortion as fundamentally wrong, any justification for abortion would become a justification for murder, and we can see no justification for murder, the ultimate sin. Another quote from the bible would seem to strengthen this view, Jeremiah 1:4-5    The Lord said to me, ‘I chose you before I gave you life, and before you were born I selected you to be a prophet to the nations.†    This seems to suggest, as did the last quote, that God decides the fate of the child before it is born, abortion would prevent the child from Christianity and Abortion :: Papers Christianity and Abortion The Christian belief in the sanctity of life is based on the teachings of famous Christians and on what they read in the bible, the teachings of Jesus. A quote from the bible which seems to support the view that abortion is wrong is from Psalm 139:13, verses 15-16,    â€Å"You created every part of me; You put me together in my mother’s womb†¦ When my bones were being formed, Carefully put me together in my mother’s womb. When I was growing there in secret, You knew that I was there – You saw me before I was born. The days allotted to me Had all been recorded in your book, Before any of them ever began.†    This seems to be saying that god has already begun to have an influence on the life of a person before they are even born. The life of a person is already unique and god has already given them their own identity before they are born. If this is true, and the quote seems to be saying that it is, then abortion would have to be seen as a crime on the same level as murder. There are no good grounds for murder, one of the Ten Commandments says,    â€Å"Do not commit murder.†    So, if we were to consider only this quote then we would have to see abortion as fundamentally wrong, any justification for abortion would become a justification for murder, and we can see no justification for murder, the ultimate sin. Another quote from the bible would seem to strengthen this view, Jeremiah 1:4-5    The Lord said to me, ‘I chose you before I gave you life, and before you were born I selected you to be a prophet to the nations.†    This seems to suggest, as did the last quote, that God decides the fate of the child before it is born, abortion would prevent the child from

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Task One Automated Teller Machines :: Computer Science

Task One Automated Teller Machines 1. See diagram over page for Input and output devices This kind of interface is an interactive interface with buttons. I think this would be improved considerably and the ways that I think will be improved by more security on the machines. I think they will have devices like retina scans, voice activation and thumbprints. At the moment the only security is PINS and cards but they can be stolen and I think they will improve the security more. 2. The process for a customer obtaining cash is called transaction processing in real time. This kind of processing is called transaction processing. If the cash withdrawal is required, the customer enters the amount they want from the machine. This is then checked against the balance of the account and if funds are available of the account, the machine dispenses money. Also at the same the amount from the account is subtracted from the balance on the customer's record on the bank computer. When it's finished the card releases back the card to the customer. [IMAGE]Other services are available are withdrawal of cash, ordering of statements, requests for new chequebooks and obtaining the balance of the account. Advantages Disadvantages To the Bank Employs fewer people High level of security needed It is cheaper than paying staff Hackers could break into the machines Less need to build banks and money could be used elsewhere Employees loose their jobs. To the customer It is fast. Credit cards could be stolen It can be accessed anytime The magnetic strips can be damaged by the ATM They can get it anywhere The card has to be replaced from time to time 3. Bank cards, credit and debit cards Diagram front and back PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, it acts like a password, and the user enters it to the ATM keypad to verify that they are the account holder. The PIN helps to reduce fraud. The information stored on the magnetic strip is account numbers, bank sort code, system number, cheque digit Task two - Cheque clearing There are three sets of numbers printed along the bottom of the cheque using magnetic ink and machines can automatically read these numbers. MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, it works by inputting special ink onto cheques and the ink then is magnetised. The limits are that very few characters could be recognised but it can be read quite fast. The special ink then is recognised by using a process called MICR. It's used on cheques because it has high security and if the special has been tampered on, the computer can still read the data on the special magnetised ink. The cheque clearing process is called Transaction Processing; it

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Divorced, Beheaded, Survived Essay

Death is a peculiar thing. Everyone reacts to it in different ways. And no one seems to fully understand what to do, what to say and how to react when death occurs in the family or in the family in one’s circle of friends. It seems that man can’t really understand why it happens. At least not when it is someone one cares about. But it happens, and there is nothing else to do about it, than survive and move on with one’s life. This is the subject treated in Robin Blacks shortstory â€Å"†¦ Divorced, Beheaded, Survived† (2010). The shortstory is the story of a woman who loses her big brother, Terry, to sickness at a very young age. It is also a story about how her brother and she used to play with the other children who lived close by, and how they stopped playing after Terry died. The main character also describes how she tries to protect her children from this awful phenomenon that death is, but how she is unable to do so as her son’s friend dies in the end. The main character who acts as a past tense narrator, does not tell much about herself. To be clear she does not describe many of the characters at all. The fact that there are very few adjectives and adverbs shows the reader that one must use ones imagination, the characters are not important for they could be anyone in such a neighborhood. The reader relates to the story in a different way than they normally would, because they have to use their own experiences to fill out the missing pieces of the personalities of the characters. The person the narrator tells about the most, is Terry or Terrance as he is actually called. The narrator describes how he plays Anne Boleyn with much character and liveliness. Page 2, line 6-9 â€Å"(†¦) was undoubtedly the most convincing. Once, he stole a dress from our mother’s closet – a red-and-white Diane von Furstenberg wraparound so he could use the beltlike part to hold the couch-pillow baby, the future Queen Elizabeth, in place. ‘Oh, Hal,’ he cooed. † He is a happy boy and has no worries, until he gets sick. This turns his life upside down and it changes him, which one could imagine is only natural for a child when it gets sick. Page 4, line 103-104 â€Å"He stopped being the boy who would throw himself into anything that seemed like fun. † The narrator loves seeing her brother play Anne Boleyn, she thinks he is very convincing in the role. Page 2, line 12 â€Å"It was worth giving up the role yourself just to watch Terry give it his all. † The fact that it is Terry that is often chosen to play Anne Boleyn, even though they all want to play her, could be a symbol of fate choosing him to get sick and die. It might as well have been one of the other kids, as well as it could have been one of the other kids who could have played the role. This is shown in the part of the story where Anne Boleyn dies, and Terry has to play the dying woman. Page 4, line 99-101 â€Å"And Terry would hold his face in both hands, his shoulders heaving in enormous, racking, make-believe sobs. But in real life, it was all silent hours. Vacant stares. † The game of playing Anne Boleyn could also be a symbol of the children losing something. Anne Boleyn loses her head and life, Terry loses his life and the narrator loses her brother, her friends and a part of her childhood. At this point it is only the first part of the rhyme that is used. Page 3, line 43 â€Å"Divorced, beheaded, died. † But as the children move on with their lives, learn to live with the loss of a friend and a brother, and some of them meet again even though they do not talk, the rest of the rhyme appears in their life. And this time it holds a whole new meaning. Page 6, line 174 â€Å"Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived. † The structure of the text is a bit messy but it still manages to give the reader a good and continuous view of the narrator’s life. The fact that the first 1,5 pages focuses on her childhood with the games and her brother, gives the reader a strong sense that it is a chapter of her life that ended when her brother died. But as she continuously mentions her brother, one also understands that her brother is still with her, even though he belongs to an ended chapter. And as she moves on with her life, and survives, she keeps him with her in a more secure way and without getting scared of forgetting about him. Page 5, line 153-156 â€Å"the truth is sometimes even more than a day goes by before I remember to think of my brother (†¦) Maybe it’s a gift to be able to let go of remembering. Some times. Some things. † The narrator tells us about her family and how her son loses his friend in the end of the text, this is a way to tell the reader that it can happen to anyone, and that it is possible to move on. It is possible to survive the death of someone dear. But never to forget it, a person lost will always be remembered one way or another, intentionally or not.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Our Posthuman Future Summary Essay

Chapter 1: At the beginning of Our Posthuman Future by Francis Fukuyama, it talks about two different books: 1984 and Brave New World. These books talk about multiple technologies that would change and shape the next two generations. For the decade that these books were published it had them think that having a utopian world would have no consequences. I disagree with it for the most part, because if we are created to have certain qualities or characteristics then we would lose the understanding of what it means to be human. It referred to invetro fertilization and Fukoyama thought it was a deal with the devil. And it is in a way. We shouldn’t be allowed to mess with the creation of life or choose what they would look like, how they would act just because there might be that off chance that they may blame the parents instead of themselves. Biotechnology is not something to be trifled with. You must be careful with your steps or face the consequences of what the aftermath may be. Basically chapter one creates a visual for the future of the human race if evolution is pushed to far then we will face our own destruction that we caused. Chapter 2: So the beginning of chapter two talks about molecular biology and how it could help with the prevention of genetic diseases like breast cancer and cystic fibrosis. In a way this will help our ability to improve ourselves and gives us room to grow and empathize with the technological revolution. Francis mentions that we face ethical choices about genetic privacy, proper uses of drugs and human cloning. And we truthfully do. It goes back to what we believe is right and wrong but we have to take in the fine line in between. If we think about it, one human cloning does have its benefits. The chances of getting a genetic disease or dying due to a low immune system would severely decrease. But then it goes back to losing our human qualities and personality. But with the upcoming future we will have to face these issues for enhancements rather than therapeutic reasons. And by enhancements there may be a way to understand the genetics of homosexuality and possibly propose a plan for the parents to reduce the likelihood that they will give birth to a gay child. It’s rather sad that an expectant mother would take a pill or have something injected into the fetus just so they wouldn’t have to worry about the harassment. Even if you say you are against antigay discrimination then you should stick to that decision, give the person a choice before they are able to make it themselves. Chapter 3: Chapter three talks about the advances in the field of neuropharmacology. It also talks about Freudianism that was built on the premise that mental illness was primarily psychological in nature. This caused doctors to try drug therapy rather than talk therapy. One used was Lithium; it â€Å"cured† a number of people and then led to other drugs like Prozac and Ritalin. These drugs helped relax the mentally ill and calmed them down. The drug Prozac is an anti-depressant that supposedly changed this girls life around for the better. While I do believe that her doctor over-exaggerated I think most doctors do. Why would they explain every possible side effect like: memory loss, violence, weight gain and the big one suicide. It definitely should not be prescribed as a wonder drug because of the long term side effects. Although like with most drugs, when they are first distributed they truthfully don’t understand its genetic makeup, even with testing and trials. But by understanding them better now and how they affect the human body we are now able to understand the neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin. These two transmitters control the messages of the brain that can alter our feelings of wellness, happiness, jealousy and fear. I feel that if the knowledge of the brain functions are able to be altered then it can cause a political standing. Francis talks about self-esteem that can only come through by fulfilling our human desire of acknowledgment. I suppose if the drugs can give us a feeling of righteousness then in might help the depression that seems to follow us because of the world around us. But I doubt it will give us the motivation for us to set our own ideals. I still believe that these few drugs are not good for us. With our luck there will probably be an unforeseen side-effect and then where would we be, back to square one. Chapter 4: Chapter four talks about the prolongation of life and the increase of life expectancies. In a way this is a bad economically because of social security and other retirement benefits. It also talks about evolutionary biologists that ten to believe that aging is caused by genes and that there are no shortcuts to the postponement of death. I do tend to agree with this for the most part. It does not matter much how you live your life because anything can cause your time to end in a moment. No one knows when a person is going to die because there are too many factors to consider. Another theory is that the body loses its functionality and just dies. And then there is also the Hayflick Limit, where environmental factors prevent the accurate copying of DNA. I think that if someone were to die due to health issues it would follow more of this idea. In time I do believe that the view point of death will change. Will a person be able to understand that their body is going out or will they fight tooth and nail to stay alive? Fear of dying plagues us all. We may be able to understand more why we die in 2050 but that does not mean we will be prepared. I do not think we will ever be over our apprehension of dying, that is what we will have with us at all times because we are human. Chapter 5: Chapter five is all about genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is definitely a huge controversy and has been for many years. The project was funded by the US and other governments across the globe. There was, of course, the usual competition and the â€Å"want† to be first. It seems with anything there is that pride when the secrets are unlocked to something (DNA) so complex. With the success of the cloned Dolly sheep, some began to wonder if cloning humans would ever work. I personally do not believe we should be able to. There has to be a reason why our bodies are designed to create life, instead of in a cold laboratory. Not to mention why would someone want to clone themselves? Another technology under study would be artificial chromosomes. Scientists want to add an extra chromosome to the 46 we already possess. They not only want to create one, but they want to be able to turn it on or off with the persons consent when they are of age. For them to be able to actually create this would be extremely difficult if not impossible. Every one of our chromosomes serves a purpose so how would they be able to create one that does something different? Would it bring false hope that this person would be a super genius, or have the inability to cause harm? Cloning anything is beyond difficult and causes plenty of moral and social concerns. Chapter 6: Chapter six is pretty much about why we should worry about biotechnology. It starts off talking about eugenics (deliberate breeding of people with desirable traits). Western countries actually had laws that permitted the state to sterilize people them deem imbeciles. I don’t understand how they can just not give someone a chance to bring life into this world. Most of the time a person becomes desperate and that is why they have to turn to a life of crime or do things they normally wouldn’t do. Granted someone finally grew a conscious and the popularity of eugenics in most places, except for the Asian territories where they have the one child per family law. They did not understand at the time that with most traits or characteristics have to be inherited by both parents. Since World War 2 eugenics has been associated with racism because of the discrimination it perceives towards certain groups of people. It’s almost like telling a child that they can’t play with the blue-eyed children because they are no good. It is ridiculous on its own. There is always the chance that eugenics will pop back up, and if it does it will cause the parents to make decisions. The parent does ultimately have the decision but if pushed or persuaded a certain way it can change their course. We need to let people make their own decisions because if we don’t then how will we learn from them? Chapter 7: Chapter seven is all about human rights. There is an unbelievable amount of rights that we â€Å"Democracy† people think we should have. Not only that but it turns out that abortion is protected under the first amendment. We do have the right to choose whether or not we want to have a child. It’s because we have choices and the right to choose. Basically the word â€Å"right† implies moral judgment. Truthfully I believe we do need rights, no matter what form they come in. to not have right is like going back to the 18th century when everything revolved around power and politics. It didn’t matter what you wanted the courts decided for you. Our human nature has changed and developed into something kinder along the ways. Granted there are times when we feel as though we have no choice but to do this or that, but we can choose to not do something or hell go and do something for the better. of course consequences usually play a role in thing but the fact that we have a right to choose what we would rather do for ourselves is a vast improvement. Chapter 8: Chapter eight talks about how human nature has been extremely controversial. Most of the speculation is about that fine line between nature and nurture. Truthfully there is a fine line between them. You must know where the line is to know when to protect and when to show tough love. This could change the characteristics and how it affects the child. Francis also kind of talks about environmental impacts and it plays a big role. Depending on the environment it can change how human being s react in difficult situations. Chapter 9: Much of politics centers on the question of human dignity and the desire for recognition to which it is related. This means that we humans want to be constantly recognized by our dignity, or by which ever group we partake in. And it is very true. We constantly strive to be noticed in school for our good grades, by making that winning catch in a game or by just being ourselves. We also desire to have respect by our peers; something that is rarely achieved. Francis goes on to talk about a factor X. Factor X is in all humans and should be respected no matter which class, skin color or gender you are. In a way it’s like factor X is what makes us human. If you cause harm on something without the chromosome then it’s ok but if you enslave, torture or kill someone with the chromosome then it’s a crime against humanity. For many societies the X factor was contributed to the upper ranking people. But factor X is the basic meaning of what it is to be human. Without it what are we? If we lose the idea of a factor X then it will more than likely have us returning to discrimination at full force. It’s not fair what humans have had to go through because they lack a single chromosome. Chapter 10: Chapter ten is about the political control of biotechnology. The government must regulate the research of biotechnology to ensure public safety. Without regulations so many bad things can happen it’s almost idiotic. Francis believes that the debate over biotechnology is held captive by extremists from either side, one side being the ones who are with it, the other the ones who are against it. I’m leaning towards the ones who are against it. I believe that should be banned completely. I do think that biotechnology can be controlled but to do so would be difficult. But the real question is how? Scientists cannot police themselves and therefore someone must watch over them. A team of individuals that would have a broad viewpoint would be able to be the police but to find such would be difficult. A ban on biotechnology can happen and maybe will but laws do change over time to fit the socialness of the time. The only area that will probably still go for the bio tech would be East Asia. Really because of their religion, and because eugenics wasn’t abused much over there. I still feel as though biotechnology should not be tried but then again we cannot stop the minds of scientists and they will always try to do the impossible because of their nature. Chapter 11: Chapter eleven is all about how biotechnology is regulated today. There is the self-regulation by scientists or industry and the statutory which is basically the government. The government varies in strictness, big surprise there. With anything government, law or policy, it will always be more strict. Responsibilities are divided out so that they can be followed more closely or better I suppose. It also depends on where you are looking at regulations. Germany is the strictest, Britain the most relaxed and most other places are somewhere in between. As time goes on the laws and regulations have begun to tighten due to scandals and tragedies. It’s unfortunate that it takes something bad to happen before safety and precautions are more of a concern. Chapter 12: Chapter twelve, the FINAL CHAPTER, is about policies for the future. We do need to keep in mind that with time change comes. As of now new laws are being formulated on whether human experimentation applies to embryos. Francis does believe that the scientific community is too permissive, and that most scientists or â€Å"bioethicists† base things on the side of science. And I tend to agree here, to be a bioethicists your moral ground will be far greater than the average Joe. They must believe that they are finding ways to help the science community by figuring out ways to stop deficiencies in our DNA. With human cloning you don’t know how the child will react when they reach maturity. I mean they would be an exact copy of another person without the connection. More than likely it will turn out bad and then we will just have a band of adolescents hating their â€Å"parents†, and the scientist who created them. Truth be told a clone really isn’t a human being. It is more of a replica of what a human is. Also if they try to mix human DNA with animals then the whole definition of human would change completely.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Biopsychosocial Analysis of Maria Andrade Essay

Maria Andrade is 79 years old. She came to America as a Cuban refugee at the age of 20. She was raised by her grandparents in Cuba. She began working at the age of 14. When she arrived in Miami, she was able to obtain part time employment and immediately enrolled herself in ESL classes. Thereafter she attended community college for about two years. She then moved to Los Angeles due to being accepted to UCLA where she obtained a BA in Sociology and a Masters’ in Business Administration. She worked for a private bank for about 24 years where she met her current husband. She now works for the Department of Public Social Services where she has been working for about 25 years and is planning on retiring in the near future. She has been working for the past 49 years non -stop not including the years she worked in Cuba. Maria got married at the age of 30 and has been married since. I recall Maria stating that although she is looking forward to retirement and loves her husband very much, one reason she is not looking forward to retirement is due to the fact that she will now have to spend the majority of her time with her husband. She feels that one of the reasons they have had a long successful marriage is due in part to the fact that she and her husband have not had to spend all their time together and have been able to have separate lives away from each other due to both of them having full time employment with different schedules. The reason I mention the marriage is because she has been working for 49 plus years and therefore, she will now have to adjust to a new life that does not include work. Maria also stated that when she retires she will be able to spend more time with her grandchildren and close friends and family. She will continue to be active by gardening, walking, swimming and any other activity that her mind, body and soul as she  puts it, allow her to. Maria understands the importance of maintaining an active life style â€Å"The new model for successful aging includes physical and mental well-being and contains three elements: avoiding disease and disability, sustaining high cognitive and physical function, and engaging with life (NIMH, 2002; Row & Kahn, 1997). The reason Maria is able to remain active now is because she began taking care of herself as a teenager after both of her parents passed from severe cases of diabetes. She made a conscious decision to always eat healthy and remain physically active. She kept this way of thinking even after arriving in a foreign country. Although diabetes runs in her family, she has been able to remain free of diabetes and other major health issues that seem to plague older people. She feels that majoring in Sociology helped her to understand the importance of how living a healthy life style from an early age will help in the aging process, â€Å"In early childhood, the life cycle’s second phase, learning physical autonomy and control of one’s bodily functions, versus shame and doubt in not learning them, paves the way for coping with deterioration of the body in old age† (Hillier, Barrow, 9e, p76). At 79 years old, since I have known Maria, she has not had been on any type of medical leave. She believes that her parents’ death served as a wake-up call for her. She feels that if it were not for both of them dying, she may not have lived to 79 years old because she would have eventually developed diabetes. Her mental well being was affected so much so that at one point while still in Cuba, she was starving herself in order to avoid eating the â€Å"wrong foods†. She eventually learned what types of food were healthy and unhealthy. Maria feels that her perceptions, intelligence, learning, memory and personality have been affected but only because she feels that it is part of the natural aging affected process, â€Å"Normal aging includes stable intellectual functioning, capacity for change, and productive engagement with life† (Hillier, Barrow, 9e, p122). She admits to once in a while not remembering where she left items. Although her perceptions and memory have been slightly affected, she has been able to maintain a work load of 400 plus cases. As mentioned before, once she retires, she will be spending a lot of time with family and friends. Maria and her siblings became even closer after her parents passed away. Together they experienced the deaths of both parents and they travelled together from Cuba and have not separated since. Therefore, she understands the importance of having family and friends in your life, â€Å"Given their shared experiences, siblings can be a major resource for life review among older adults†, (Hillier, Barrow, 9e, p153). She keeps close relationships with her brother and sister as she is the eldest and has always been protective of them. Maria and her husband will assume the roles of babysitters for their grandchildren. They volunteered to take care of their grandchildren as part of their plan to continue with their active lifestyle. Maria understands how important she and her siblings were to her own grandparents as they were raised by her mother’s parents. Maria will continue to be physically active by walking, gardening and swimming and will continue with her friendships. Currently she meets with her friends once a week due to her full time work schedule; however, once she is retired, she is planning on meeting with her friends every other day. She knows how important friendships are; therefore, she understands that by maintaining her friendships so close to her, she will be able to turn to them for support as she feels that she may need it once she retires, â€Å"Friendship is extremely important in the lives of elderly people† (Hillier, Barrow, 9e p162). As for her husband, she believes that he is a blessing because she understands that not everyone is lucky enough to live a long married life, let alone getting to an older age while still having your spouse by your side. Maria feels that he has been an integral part of her overall well being. He supports her with everything she does. They both maintain well eating habits and daily exercise although she states that he protests at times, â€Å"Marriage maintains health: married people tend to have higher levels of well-being and better health than unmarried people† (Hillier, Barrow, 9e p174).

Saturday, September 14, 2019

A Comparative Study between Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel

Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel were both Baroque composers who used the Italian and French styles that were the basic language of the Baroque. The study of Bach and Handel is interesting because of their marked similarities and subtle differences. Bach and Handel were of Saxon ancestry. They came from neighboring towns, Bach from Eisenach, Handel from Halle, and were born but one month apart in the same year, Handel in February, Bach in March, 1685 (Young, 1962). They were both masters of concerto in all its forms:sonata;suite;fugue;opera;cantata;both sacred and secular;oratorio;mass;passion.Both Bach and Handel learnt their art by making copies of all the works of acknowledged masters. Bach and Handel were studious copyists throughout their lives. Besides Johann Christoph, Bach took as models the Italians, Frescobaldi, Corelli, Vivaldi, Lotti, Caldara, Legrenzi, Marcello and many others. His special interests led to keyboard music, to violin music and to choral mus ic. Handel, under Zachau, made an anthology of excerpts from Froberger, Kerll,Strungck, Johann Krieger. During his later career he was influenced by Alessandro Stradella, Giacomo Carissimi, Georg Muffatt, Karl Heinrich Graun, Giovanni Clari and others.Though they sound like brilliant stars rising at the same time, they charted their different paths in music according to their individual natures. There was no musical tradition in Handel's family, his father was a prosperous surgeon who intended George Frideric for the Law; on the other hand members of the Bach dynasty had been for generations conspicuous in musical affairs in Thuringiaevering. Bach remained within the boundaries of his Saxon fatherland throughout his life and was a good citizen and was the father of twenty children.Handel, on the other hand was the man of the world, honored all over Europe. He was bold and outgoing in nature. The one tragic similarity in their lives is that they both went blind at the end of their li ves (Young, 1962). While Bach's grave was forgotten, Handel, who died nine years later, in 1759, was laid to rest in the English pantheon, Westminster Abbey. In those days, music was solely written for the sole purpose of immediate performance, its preservation beyond that moment being a secondary consideration. â€Å"Occasional† or commissioned work used to be the rule.Bach wrote his cantatas for the services of St. Thomas' Church in Leipzig, and Handel wrote his operas for special performances and strictly to suit the voices of the personnel that happened to be available. Bach’s work was mostly unrecognized and neglected for many generations till the 19th century. He was recognized as a great musician by the world only 75 years after his death. The later 18th century knew Bach mainly as an instrumental composer who wrote especially for the organ and the piano (Bekker, 1927). People tended to interpret Bach’s from diverse viewpoints.Bach used to be considered a contrapuntist pure and simple, a learned musician who treated music as a sort of mathematics (Bekker, 1927). From this viewpoint, Bach seemed to be principally a servant of the church, a sort of Protestant Palestrina who also wrote secular music. Later it became apparent that he could not after all be counted simply as a composer of Church music, so he was looked upon as a romantic poet. The romanticists, declared that Bach was the archromanticist, and should be interpreted with the utmost feeling and expression.Some felt that Bach's music was inherently emotional (Bekker, 1927). Whatever the angle of perception, Bach came to be regarded as the great builder of musical form. Contrastingly, Handel, the cosmopolitan composer and impresario, was internationally famous in his own lifetime. He was primarily a writer of oratorios (Young, 1962). His instrumental compositions were not considered serious enough for study. The Italian operas which he composed in were considered worthless in the eyes of the critics of that period (Bekker, 1927).Today however, things have changed and Handel's operas are in the repertoire of nearly every great opera-house (Bekker, 1927). Bach used a personal synthesis of the Flemish and Italian styles with German counterpoint, Handel showed a strong early inclination toward the extroverted and dramatic world of Italian opera (Krantz, 2007). In short, it can be said that Bach looked inward and Handel outward. Bach composed cantatas and organ music and, by his genius and talent for seeing holistic symbolism in words and music, he extended the character of his models (Young, 1962).Handel, more fluent, more rhetorical, and a free agent with his way to make in the world seized the formalized patterns of entertainment music in secular cantata, in oratorio, in opera, and in instrumental music (Young, 1962). Both Bach and Handel had different personalities. Bach was an introvert whereas Handel was an extrovert. Handel assimilated the various nati onal styles and specialized in each of them separately. Bach assimilated the various influences with his own personal style and arrived at a fusion of national styles in which the single elements are inseparable (Dorak, 2002).The main works of Handel are his operas, written from an universal perspective for an international public. The main works of Bach are his cantatas, written for the local churches, and his passions, the monuments of his liturgical severity. Handel, being a widely traveled musician has visited many international centers of music. Bach, on the other hand confined himself within the limits of central Germany. Bach’s great works include the Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor, most of the great preludes and fugues, and the 45 chorale-preludes gathered in Das Orgelbuchlein [the little organ book].His instrumental compositions are the Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue; the English Suites; the French Suites; the Two-Part and Three-Part Inventions; and Book I of the cele brated Well-Tempered Clavier. He also wrote several unaccompanied violin sonatas and cello suites, and the Brandenburg Concertos, recognized as the best concerti grossi ever composed. The St. John Passion was performed (1723) at Leipzig and his Magnificat was presented shortly after he assumed that post.Many more of his superb religious compositions followed: the St. Matthew Passion (1729), the Christmas Oratorio, the sonorous Mass in B Minor, and the six motets. The principal keyboard works of this period were Book II of The Well-Tempered Clavier and the four books of clavier pieces in the Clavierubung and the Goldberg Variations. His last notable compositions were the Musical Offering composed (1747) for Frederick the Great and The Art of the Fugue (1749). In all his positions as choir director, Bach composed sacred cantatas—a total of some 300, of which nearly 200 are extant.There are also over 30 secular cantatas, composed at Leipzig, among them Phoebus and Pan (1731). Th e bulk of his work is religious. In his instrumental and choral works he perfected the art of polyphony, displaying an unmatched combination of inventiveness and control in his great, striding fugues (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004a). Handel's 46 operas include much of his finest music; among them are Julius Caesar (1724), Atalanta (1736), Berenice (1737), and Serse (1738), which contains the tenor aria now known as Largo. Handel's opera, ‘Messiah’ was presented in Dublin in 1742.An essentially contemplative work, it stands apart from the rest of his 32 oratorios, which are dramatically conceived, and its immense popularity has resulted in the erroneous conception of Handel as primarily a church composer. Other outstanding oratorios are Acis and Galatea (1720), Esther (1732), Israel in Egypt (1736–37), Saul (1739), and Judas Maccabeus (1747). He also composed about 100 Italian solo cantatas; numerous orchestral works, and the anthem â€Å"Zadok, the Priest† (1727) for the coronation of George II, which has been used for all subsequent coronations (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004b).There is one particular text that was set to music by both Bach and Handel. This is Eilt ihr angefocht'nen Seelen in the Passion Oratorio (by Handel) and in the St. John Passion (by Bach). They used the same key and the same pictorial representation of ‘haste', and the choral interjections at dramatic points are also common. Bukofzer, however, has opined that Handel's music is inferior because it lacks the highly individual stamp that distinguished Bach from all other composers (Dorak, 2002). When one considers their particular musical styles, Johann Sebastian Bach's music is not pompous, not theatrical; it is not court music, not gala music.His music was essentially introspective music; he did not think of the audience for whom he composed; his music is the product of his inner reflections. It is an outward expression of his tender feelings. Even in the most grandiose and eloquent moments of his â€Å"Passions† he still remains intimate. Bach’s music thus addressed itself mainly to the connoisseur. Handel wrote for the world, for the court, for the stage. His music is naturally brilliant; he has the gift for clear sonorities and powerful rhythms, which make a physical impression on the crowd, exalt and carry it away.His breadth and simplicity of design make his work illuminating, he is popular. But Bach's art is one that aims to say many things in an instant – in a single word (Landormy & Martens, 1927). This richness sometimes made it difficult for people to understand and appreciate. Handel focuses most on the harmonic clarity of his ensemble; he makes choice of what he wishes to say, he is sober, concise; He prefers to use the simple air of accompanied monody rather than polyphonic complexities (Landormy and Martens, 1927).Dynamic patterns in music were principally of two types: the melodic, which made use mainly of the voice and is known as thorough-bass, and the contrapuntal, which made use mainly of instruments and is mistakenly called polyphony (Bekker, 1927). On the superficial level, one may find that Bach is a composer of instrumental music in contrapuntal style and Handel on the other, a composer of vocal music in thoroughbass style. Some might classify the work of Bach, the pious man as subjective and Handel, the worldly man as an objective type. But these distinctions are not firmly based.Both were religious men who were also practical in their approach. They were both introspective as well as objective and both wrote vocal as well as instrumental music, and both made use of thorough-bass as well as of contrapuntal forms. They figured bass and counterpoint, and although they performed individually, they were also teachers in singing. They even chose to specialize in the same musical instrument: the organ. Bach lead his congregation in the singing of cantatas on Sundays o r the Passions on high holidays at St. Thomas's church at Leipzig much in the same way as Handel conducted his operas and his oratorios (Bekker, 1927).Bach’s music can be termed as intensive melodies whereas Handel’s music can be termed extensive melodies. Bach uses very dense contrapuntal texture with complex and chromatic harmonies. On the other hand Handel uses a simple template for his expressions and hence his work is meant for instant sensuous appreciation. The extensive quality of Handel's melodies allows his music to be amplified whereas this is not possible in the case of Bach's music. Amplification would destroy the transparency of the contrapuntal process. The vocal component of Bach’s music is very difficult to perform.There are disjunct movements and awkward intervals. There is no overlapping between the instrumental and vocal lines. In fact, the free-voiced choral polyphony of Handel and the strictly linear, instrumentally conceived polyphony of Ba ch form the two poles of late Baroque music (Bekker, 1927). Handel considers the flow of ideas more important than elaboration whereas to Bach, elaboration is more important. The fast changing textures in his choral writing clearly indicate that for Handel, counterpoint is only a means to a dramatic end (Krantz, 2007). On the contrary, Bach takes it as an end in itself which must be consistent.By nature of its conception, Handel’s counterpoint reaches its apex through the vocal medium. Handel’s work depends so much on the vocal component so much so even his keyboard fugues seem to call for text and become most excellent in vocal form. This accounts for the success of Handel in vocal music (Krantz, 2007). Bach is more adept at the instrumental form. Bach prefers to submit his choral polyphony to an instrumental standard. To quote Tevfik Dorak: â€Å"In the flexibility of his choral idiom, Handel surpasses Bach in the same measure as Bach surpasses Handel in contrapunta l consistency† (Dorak, 2002).One of the major differences between them lay in their individual conception of tone. A person who conceives tone vocally will also feel instrumental music as vocal, and the person who conceives tone instrumentally will also feel vocal music as instrumental. Some comparative features among the two great masters are as follows (Dorak, 2002):Bach conceived tone instrumentally and Handel vocally.Bach focused a lot on spiritual music and created profoundly religious cantatas, passions and masses. Handel treated even religious theme based oratorios such as the â€Å"Messiah† with a theatrical effect. This was more popular to the middle class audience.The vocal component of his music was used essentially as a melodic instrument with the most intricate demands of counterpoint expected of it. Handel's writing for the voice is completely idiomatic and the freer contrapuntal textures are more vocally conceived and are contrasted with powerful choral w riting.Handel demonstrates the Italian conservatism in his music and uses very simplified form. Bach is conservative in his adherence to the complex polyphonic texture, but progressive in his choice of modern forms, such as the concerto form of Vivaldi. Similarly, the organ style of Handel is clearly influenced by the idiom of the harpsichord as the opposite is true for Bach.Bach is related to the immediate future in his attitude because of modern day focus on instrumental music, while Handel is related to the past. On the other hand the melodic, homophonic figured bass chosen by Handel is more relevant to modern music than Bach's contrapuntal style. Thus both these composers are in some ways relevant to the past and in some other ways relevant to the future. The two great masters of the Baroque period were not beyond criticism.Bach was criticized because he was too intellectual and, paradoxically, because an excess of reason conflicted with the aesthetic precepts of the Age of Reas on. Handel was criticized for exceeding the conventional in the extras which he introduced into his orchestration to underline his dramatic appreciation of scene and situation. Whatever be the criticisms, it remains undeniable that these two masters of Baroque were outstanding in their natural talent. Though they belonged to the same place and same period and produced musical works of similar genre, they differed in their styles of expression.This difference actually was a major asset to these great masters who remained true to their inner beliefs. The honesty of expression combined with their outstanding talents has helped define baroque music.BibliographyDorak, Tevfik (2002). Handel and JS Bach. http://www. dorak. info/music/jsbgfh. htmlBukofzer MF. Music in the Baroque Era. WW Norton & Company Inc. NY, 1974, pp. 345-9.Krantz, Allen (2007). George Frideric Handel. http://www. classicalarchives. com/bios/handel_bio. html Landormy, Paul and Martens, H. Frederick (1927).A History of Music. Charles Scribner's Sons. New York. 1927. The Columbia Encyclopedia (2004a).Bach, Johann Sebastian. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. New York. 2004 The Columbia Encyclopedia (2004b).Handel, George Frideric. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. New York. 2004. Young, M. Percy. (1962).The Choral Tradition: An historical and analytical survey from the sixteenth century to the present day. W. W. Norton Publishing. New York 1962. Bekker, Paul (1927).The Story of Music: An Historical Sketch of the Changes in Musical Form. Translated by Alice Kortschak and Herter Norton. W. W. Norton and Company Inc. New York. 1927.