Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Camille Saint Saens Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Camille Saint Saens - Essay Example His intelligence wasn’t just limited to music, for he excelled in such fields as geology, astronomy, and mathematics. Some of Saint-Saens famous works include the â€Å"Piano Concerto No. 2, Symphony No. 3 ("Organ"), and most noteworthy The Carnival of The Animals which he dedicated to close friend Franz Liszt (Cummings). Throughout his life, he produced a variety of expressive and dramatic works including poems, operas, and symphonies. In 1908 Saint-Saens had the honor of being the first composer to write a musical piece for the motion picture The Assassination of the Duke of Guise (Cummings). Inspired by French Classicism, he was especially brilliant at composing piano music like the Variations on a Theme by Beethoven and the Scherzo. His married life proved to be a great tragedy with the death of both of his children. During this lonesome period he produced some of his best works like Danse macabre in 1875 and Samson et Dalila in 1878 (Cummings). Saint-Saens was also very close to his mother and upon her death succumbed to an even lonelier and depressed stage of his life. After this he took to traveling and writing music about exotic places like Algeria and Egypt producing works like Africa and his Piano Concerto No. 5, the "Egyptian" (Cummings).

Monday, October 28, 2019

Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Essay Example for Free

Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Essay In Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet, the character Friar Laurence had the greatest influence on the tragic outcome of the play. Friar Lawrence was a trusted holy man whose judgment was held in the highest reverence by Romeo and Juliet. However, he failed to provide a wise solution to their dilemma. Romeo and Juliets demise was the product of the Friars predisposition to act in haste, his irresponsibility and his fear of being disgraced. The Friars first shortcoming that contributed to the tragic result is the way he commits to impulsive and rash decisions. For example, when Romeo tells the Friar of his new love for Juliet, the Friar tells Romeo that he is acting too hastily and not thinking about the consequences, they stumble that run fast. (II. III. 94). However, despite his advice to Romeo of thinking before acting, he decides to marry them in hope that this will end the family feud, even though he knows that the secret wedlock can only further infuriate the two families. This is evident when the Friar says: Both Romeo and Juliet respected Friar Laurences decisions, and although he preaches the value of patience, his own impetuous conclusions is the first way he led Romeo and Juliet to catastrophe.  Friar Laurences second inadequacy that had a negative impact on the play is his irresponsibility. Although he should be the figure of dependability, the Friar is the one whose plan is the least dependable. Instead of thinking of a way to diplomatically arrive on a mutually satisfying agreement between the Capulet and Montague houses, he devises an outrageous plan that has almost no chance of success. He gives Juliet a potion to make her appear dead, and although Juliet knows this plan carries a huge risk, she is so distraught by Romeos banishment that she is willing to try anything. She even goes as far as questioning the Friars motives: Instead of avoiding senseless plans, the Friar not only generates a plan which is doomed to fail, but does not even responsibly administer the plan. He sends Friar John to send the letter to Romeo that explains the plan. He had not made it clear to Friar John how important the delivery was, since the messenger became quarantined in a house due to suspicions of being infected with disease. Friar Laurence should have been responsible enough to deliver the letter himself, and this is the second way in which he negatively affects the outcome of the play. The final way in which Friar Laurence unconstructively influenced the play is his fear of sin and getting in trouble. In the tomb, Juliet woke up and found Romeos dead body beside her. Friar Laurence had been late to wake up Juliet and when he realized what happened, he directed Juliet to escape with him:  Stay not to question, for the watch is coming.  Come, go, good Juliet. I dare no longer stay.  (V, III, l. 158-159) He then cowardly ran out of the tomb because of his fear of being caught by the Prince and his men. He left the shocked Juliet alone and he knew she was willing to kill herself over Romeos death. Later on, when Juliet killed herself and the Capulets and Montagues wanted an explanation, he admitted that he was at fault:  Miscarried by my fault, let my old life be sacrificed.  Unto the rigor of severest law.  (V. III. 267-269) This fear of being caught is the third way that Friar Laurence has negatively affected the play.  In conclusion, Friar Laurence was important because he holds the greatest blame for the tragic events in the play. He did this because of his hasty decision-making, his irresponsibility and his uncertainty for his safety. The outcome of the play might have been happier if someone else directed Romeo and Juliets actions. He does have the best intentions for Romeo and Juliet, and it is ironic how his best intentions cause the greatest tribulations for the two lovers. If the Friar had acted the way he had preached to Romeo, he would be a hero. As he had described the misapplied virtue of the herbs in the garden, the same applies to him: Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Turkish Pogrom of 1955 and the Elimination of the Greek Minority of

The Reconstitution of Turkish Pogrom The chronology of the pogrom falls in a hard period, when the Cyprus issue had caused difficulties in the political relations of Greece, Turkey and England. It is considered that Hikmet Bill the owner of the Turkish journal Hurriyet and Ahmet Emin Yalmas the owner of Vatan received a large amount of money in order to create the political atmosphere of the pogrom from British sources. By July 1955, the Turkish press and some organizations such as The‘Cyprus is Turkish’, the National Federation of Turkish Students and the National Union of Turkish Students organized mass demonstrations against the Greek minority of Istanbul and the Ecumenical Patriarchate (Vryonis 2005). Nowadays, most Greeks and Turks are unaware of the fact that on the night of September 6, until the early hours of September 7, 1955 the Adnan Menderes’ government and the Turkish Intelligence Service carried out the most destructive pogrom in Europe since the well-known Krystallnacht on the eve o f the Second World War. In addition, they do not know that this pogrom damaged, and in many cases destroyed several houses, businesses, churches and institutions and that this had as a result, the elimination of the Greek minority, the oldest historical community of Turkey (Vryonis 2005). On the afternoon of September 6th 1955, a radio station in Ankara reported that a bomb exploded under mysterious circumstances in the courtyard of Kemal Atatà ¼rk’s house in Thessaloniki, causing minor damages. The reports did not produce any reaction at first. However, a few hours later the Turkish journal Istanbul Express circulated an extra edition. According to the newspaper, the birthplace of Kemal Atatà ¼rk in Thessaloniki had been bombed. ... ...were wilful violation of their religion (Vryonis 2005). In spite of this, the Greek minority of Istanbul was still possessed by an intense sense of insecurity, which has as a result, the flee of hundreds of families from their birthplaces to Greece, threatening to diminish the community as a whole. Additionally, apart from the Greek minority the Pogrom of 6-7 September delivered a severe blow to Turkish economy. Street markets in Istanbul, which were under the control of Greek merchants, covering the basic needs of the citizens of the most populous city of Turkey. Therefore, the partial destruction brought about the impoverishment to the greater part of the Turkish population, leading to significant shortages of basic goods and a rapid rise in prices. The painful condition of Turkish economy would play a significant role in the issue of payment of compensation.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Defining Roles through the Use of Language in Richard Wright’s Autobiography, Black Boy :: Richard Wright’s Black Boy

Defining Roles through the Use of Language in Richard Wright’s Autobiography, Black Boy In his autobiography, Black Boy, Richard Wright is constantly feeling alone and cast from society. He always knew he was different from his friends and the other kids; he knew that there was something separating himself from his peers- language. Throughout the novel Wright uses language to define roles, to define himself, and to define society. Wright’s use of language and rhetorical techniques allows his readers to know exactly which characters are filling which roles in the novel. For example, when Richard walks into his boss's office to explain that had been bitten by the man's dog, his boss's secretary uses short concise sentences. '"He isn't here now,' she said, and went back to her typing," explains the exact manner in which Richard was treated. the syntax exhibited here demonstrates that the secretary does not have -- nor does she want to have -- the time to listen to a black boy in pain. This clearly shows that this secretary is above Richard and has no desire to slip down to his level. Furthermore, Richard uses a different syntax when speaking back to the secretary. His sentences are longer while remaining simplistic. "His dog bit me, ma'am, and I'm afraid I might get an infection" demonstrates how the diction in Richard's sentences is much less offensive and accompanied by a certain sense of inferiority, sh owing his fear of this white secretary without actually saying it. Just from Wright's choice of wording (diction and syntax), the roles in this passage are clearly drawn and defined. Wright not only defines the roles of others in this passage but, with language, he defines himself. For example, when Richard says things like; "Can't I see the Boss?" "It's swelling, " and "sonofabitch"; they are not taken with a playful connotation. His frequent use of contractions and poorly structured sentences bring to the forefront, basically, exactly how uneducated he truly is. This use of diction in his dialogue easily shows his character and exactly who he is. Lastly, Wright's use of language defines society as a whole.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Business Environment in India

India Business Environment Analysis MNGT375. 102 – International Business Fall 2009 – Thursday 6:30PM Mr. Dennis L. Noah By: Brandon Barrett Andrew Murphy I. General Characteristics of the Country The country’s terrain varies by region. The renowned Himalayas lie to the North while highland plains occupy the south, home to the Deccan Plateau. The West conveys a different terrain bringing large deserts. As a result of the terrain varying from region to region the climate follows suite. In the south the climate is tropical but moving northward it becomes more temperate. ,000 km of coastline cover India’s borders making it very accessible. The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal allow water transportation to be done easily for most of the country. The country has a somewhat established infrastructure. The infrastructure does not support its 1 billion plus people properly but despite that its infrastructure is sufficient for the short run and will only improve i n the future. Telecommunications in recent years has experienced significant expansion due to the deregulation of telecommunication laws. The cellular service industry is experiencing extremely rapid growth. However the telephone density is merely 40 out of 100 people across the nation. There are a total of 81 million internet users which is a huge untapped market available. There are 349 airports in all of India. 250 of these airports have paved runways; however the other 99 airport’s runways are unpaved. There is 63,327 km of railways throughout the country which is a very established railway system. There is 3,316,452 km of established roadways in India which is the second largest amount for any country in the world. There are 53 national highways which carry a majority portion of the traffic. In addition to roads, there is 14,500 km of waterways mainly in rivers and canals in India. India contains 11 major seaports The conditions within India are not the finest. India is a premier destination and source of human trafficking for commercial sexual abuse and forced labor. Men, women, and even children are exploited and forced to work on mills, factories, and women are forced to marry unwillingly. India is also the world’s largest producer of Opium for pharmaceutical purposes; however an undetermined but high rate is also illicitly developed. Despite obvious obstacles in India’s current economy, the potential for this untapped market is infinite and an intelligent investment for many multinational corporations. II. Political & Legal Environment The system of government in 23 states closely resembles the federal system Union (Political structure, 2009). However, seven Union territories in the country are administered by the President. The Chief Minister (CM) of a state government has the executive powers while the Governor, elected by the President, is the head of Executive (India's politics, 2009). The Council of Ministers of a state is lead by the CM and is responsible to the elected legislative assembly of the state just like the federal government (Political structure, 2009). The judiciary is independent of the executive in India. The Supreme Court (SC) is the apex court in the country. The High Court stands at the head courts of the states. Each state is divided into judicial districts presided over by a district and sessions judge, who is the highest judicial authority in a district (India's politics, 2009). â€Å"There are courts of civil jurisdiction, known in different states as munsifs, sub-judges, civil judges and the like. Similarly, criminal judiciary comprises chief judicial magistrate and judicial magistrates of first and second class† (India's politics, 2009). Corruption has gone down in India due to transparency, reformed and free judicial system (Country profile: India, 2009). The Supreme Court is supreme; it has original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction (Daniel, 2004). Its exclusive original jurisdiction extends to all disputes between the Union and one or more states or between two or more states and protects the Fundamental Rights of people (India's politics, 2009). The Supreme court has 25 justices and one Chief Justice (CJ) appointed by the President and hold the office till the age of 75 years (India's politics, 2009). It does not deal with criminal cases (Daniel, 2004). III. Economic Environment Despite economic woes that swept through the United States, and in turn the rest of the world in mid-2008; India has weathered the storm while outpacing recovery relative to many other developed and emerging nations. Year to date the Bombay Stock Exchange small cap index has outperformed the S 500 and Dow Jones Industrial Average by over 100%. Appendix A) Financial markets have recovered at an unprecedented pace; however, fundamental and economic indicators suggest this rally is fueled by massive injections of liquidly, government intervention, and quantitative easing therefore deeming growth unsustainable. While evidence from monetary, fiscal, and economic policy globally suggest a double-dip recession is palpable; consumption between the Old World (US, Western Europe, Japan) & New World (Total World minus US, Western Europe, Japan) has changed. Currently emerging markets are expanding and consuming more than developed economics. Contrary to prior trends, OPEC’s largest customers now lie within emerging economies, and China is now the main consumer of Asian goods not the United States. India is poised to exponentially contribute towards New World growth driven by a free-market democracy, emerging middle class, capitalistic mindset, young English-speaking entrepreneurial population, and large inflows of foreign direct investment. (Market Commentary Report, Marc Faber) According to Citi Emerging Markets outlook nominal GDP in US$ bn was 1175. 0 in FY08 compared to 913. 5 a year before. Real GDP yoy growth was 9. 0% in FY08, and is expected to contract to 6. 7 in FY09 and steadily grow back to 8% yoyby FY12. Real imports and exports are expected to grow by 17. 9% and 12. 8% respectively in FY09. While imports and exports have experienced negative growth over the past few months the trade balance has narrowed to US $5 bn. Over the next year expected higher oil prices should impact India’s external a ccount considering they import 70% of their crude oil. Majority of GDP growth is driven internally so the nation is less depended on export growth than other countries. India’s current account is expected to be US -$43. 7 bn; exports will make up 169. bn while imports were 286. 5 bn. The current account in FY08 represented 1. 5% of GDP, and is expected to be 3. 8% in FY09. Foreign direct investment was US 15. 4 bn in FY08, and is expected to grow to 20 bn in FY09. According to Citi Investment research public debt should be reduced by US $200M this year. Before 1992 the Indian central government exercised tight control over foreign-exchange transactions and investment. From 1975-1992 Indian authorities managed a floating exchange rate system in which the rupee was pegged against a weighted basket of currencies similar to special drawing rights from the IMF. In March 1993 a free-floating exchange rate system was implemented. In comparison to other exchange rates the INR/USD has been less volatile. In Q2 2008 the exchange rate was 43 rupees for 1 U. S dollar, currently 1 U. S dollar yields 46. 44 rupees. In the past year the U. S dollar has appreciated against the rupee; however, long-term we believe the U. S dollar will depreciate against most currencies. Expansion of the United States balance sheet and monetary base suggests over the next few years the influx of dollars in circulation will devalue our currency and eventually lead to inflation. Operating a manufacturing facility in India does pose some exchange rate risk, but in the long run divesting some operations international may provide an inflation hedge. If the rupee does appreciate against the U. S dollar as expected the facility in India could use their rupee earnings and cash flow to purchase raw materials at a discount and retain earnings in a currency that will hold its value, and yield more purchasing power when converted back to U. S dollars in the future. Foreign capital investment also experienced deregulation with a â€Å"lazzi-faire† approach during the same period. Prior to July 1991 the central government of India followed the Foreign-Exchange Regulation Act. This act required all foreign capital be granted approval by India’s government; after the new foreign investment policy was announced, automatic approval was prescribed for 34 industries deemed high priority with an equity limit of 51%. In regards to ownership, after elections earlier this year India’s foreign investment policy has become even more deregulated. According to the Ministry of Finance the upper level of foreign ownership has been raised from 51% to 74% and in some cases to a 100%. â€Å"The finance minister announced the government’s commitment to a 90-day period for approving all foreign investment. Government officers will be assigned to larger foreign investment proposals and will facilitate Central and States clearances in a time-bound manner. † (Foreign Investment Policy, Ministry of Finance) Other recent policy changes have been developed to provide incentives for foreign firm participation within India. India’s most recent foreign investment policy on the Ministry of Finance website indicates the ban against using foreign brand names/ trademarks has been lifted, the corporate tax rate for foreign companies was reduced to 55% from 65% (domestic tax rate is 40%), long-term capital gains rates were lowered to 20% for foreign firms, and the Indian Income Tax Act exempts export earnings from corporate income tax for both Indian and foreign firms. India has a three-tier tax structure in which majority of taxes are indirect such as sales, value added, and goods and services tax. Intellectual property rights are also regulated; the Embassy of India posts in their policy statement that â€Å"there is a well-e stablished statutory, administrative and judicial framework to safeguard intellectual property rights in India, whether they relate to patents, trademarks, copyright or industrial designs†. Intellectual Property Rights in India, Embassy of India) India has become a developed market place; the Bombay Stock Exchange is the largest in South Asia, and the 12th largest in the world with a market capitalization of US 1. 79 trillion. With the oldest exchange in Asia and a developed regulatory framework; the nation also has a wealth of trade organizations and business associations to set standards and polices for various industries. Currently India has several hundred industry trade associations ranging from Ahmedabad Electri cal Merchants & Contractors Association to the Wood Furniture Makers Association. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry and the Confederation of Indian Industry can be valuable government organizations when researching various compliance regulations and associations related to your firms industry. According the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry website there is a Manufacturing Committee aimed at making the industry globally competitive while indentifying possible risks and threats faced by the sector. Firms manufacturing small household appliances would join the Indian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers Association (IEEMA). Founded in 1948, Indian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers’ Association (IEEMA) is the representative national organization of manufacturers of electrical, professional electronics and allied equipment having over 550 members, Whose combined annual turnover is over Rs. 1,00,000 croresi. e. US $ 22 billion. † (About Us, IEEMA. org) The Southern India Engineering Manufacturers Assoc iation (SIEMA) might also be a valuable association to join which aims at protecting the interests of engineering companies. The Focus on the Global South organization indicates India currently has nine main regional trade agreements, and has 18 more under negotiation. Operational agreements include Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area, Asia Pacific Trade Agreement, Bangladesh – India Amended Trade Agreement, Bhutan-India Agreement on Trade, India-Maldives Trade Agreement, India-Singapore Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement, India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement, India-Thailand Free Trade Agreement, and the Indo-Nepal Treaty of Trade. The most recent agreement was signed in 1992, and all have a scope on the trade in goods; however agreements currently in negotiation focus on goods, services, investment, and economic cooperation. (Overview, Focus on the Global South) On par with many other emerging countries, India’s main industries are in the agriculture, service, and industrial sectors. Specifically the retail sector is the largest industry and the second largest employer after agriculture which accounts for about 60% of the population. Press Releases, Department of Commerce) India recently has been a premier outsourcing destination because of its low-cost but skilled and educated labor. The information technology and software sector has been successful in developing a global footprint with a slew of small business servicing niche areas in the IT market. Examples include firms that provide supply chain management, CRM, and turnkey solutions to specific industries. India is also on the technological frontie r with companies leading the way in smartcard and RFID development and implementation. The largest company in India is Reliance Industries which operates in the oil and gas industry; however, it has become a major conglomerate with a market value of US 91. 53 mi. (India’s 40 Largest Companies, Forbes) The company’s activities span from exploration and production of oil and gas to petroleum refining and marketing, petrochemicals (polyester, fibre intermediates, plastics and chemicals), textiles, retail and special economic zones. (About Us, Reliance Industris) Second, is Oil & Natural Gas Company with a market value of US 61. 1 mi then the State Bank of India with US 24. 09 mi and assets of US 188,565 mi. In emerging and developing countries it’s normal for oil & gas, financial, and utilities companies to be the largest, because they build the foundation for growth and stability. India’s economy can only grow as fast as the financial and banking sector expands and the infrastructure that supports power, communication, and networking firsts ne eds to be in place before a modern market place can develop. Historical and present day, India is still considered a country with high political and terror risks. Recently attacks in Mumbai and tensions with Pakistan have caused some turbulence in financial markets; however, any organization with a long-term focus should not be readily concerned about political and economic risk because India is only bound to benefit from democracy, growth, and deregulation that benefits free-markets and trade. Geopolitical threats are concerning, but from a U. S standpoint the situation is not any better considering were in two wars. Divesting some operations in India could actually serve as a political and economic hedge reducing our exposure to specific threats the United States may experience. According to the Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index of 2009, India ranked 84th out of a 180 countries with a score of 3. 4 out of 10. While India does not rank well on the CPI index it is still at the top of all South Asian countries. According to New Delhi most corruption lies in bribes and speed money to low-level public officials to â€Å"speed things up†. Following general elections on May 13, 2009, the Indian National Congress won 206 seats an additional 61 from before. The Indian National Congress represented 28. 5% of the vote following the Bharatiya Janata Party with 18. 80%. (Election Commission of India) Both major parties represent different alliances the United Progressive Alliance and the National Democratic Alliance. The United Progressive Alliance is said to lean more on the left side of the political spectrum with socialist and communist ideologies; however, the finance minister has made it clear through economic reforms that reflec t a market-based economy works best. Attention needs to be given to the apprehension between India’s governments and the finance minister’s economic objectives. Nonetheless, policies have recently continued to favor a free market approach. Last February the Indian government introduced its Union Budget for 2009-2010 which aimed at economic revival from the global slowdown. â€Å"Three fiscal stimulus packages in the form of tax relief and increased expenditure on public projects along with RBI taking a number of monetary easing and liquidity enhancing measures were introduced. † (Union Budget, New Delhi) India’s economy along with many others needs to adjust to a new economic landscape which includes Asia’s economic surge, America’s decline, and regional agreements. The stimulus packages are used to fuel growth rates in gross domestic product while creating profit maximizing incentives and protection for various industries. While India’s regulatory framework is still undergoing major development in terms of trade and economic policy; they also have made exponential progress. The nation is growing at over 1. 5% yoy with a rapidly emerging middle class which will drive consumerism in years to come. India is moving forward in the right direction by encouraging investment and ensuing political stability. We have a positive outlook and believe the current environment could be beneficial in minimizing the initial injection of capital to start operations. IV. Cultural and Socioeconomic Environment Religion and culture plays an important role in social relations and business in India. Traditional Indian society is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. The influences of Hinduism and the tradition of the caste system have created a culture that emphasizes established hierarchical relationships (Social Hierarchy, kwintessential, 2009). Every relationship has a clear- cut hierarchy that must be observed for the social order to be maintained. About 81. 4% of the population of India practice Hinduism, 12. 4% practice Islam. Other religions include Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism and other religions (Background note, U. S Department of State). The Indian caste system describes the social restrictions and discrimination in India, in which social classes are defined by thousands of groups, often termed as â€Å"Jatis† or castes. Discrimination based on caste is officially illegal, but remains prevalent, especially in rural areas. However, the government has made strong efforts to minimize the importance of caste through active affirmative action and social policies (Society and Culture, Times of India, 2007). India has a high context culture, many things are left unsaid. They do not like to express ‘no', be it verbally or non- verbally. Rather than disappoint you, for example, by saying something isn't available, Indians will offer you the response that they think you want to hear. If terms such as â€Å"We'll see†, â€Å"I will try† or â€Å"possibly† are employed then the chances are that they are saying ‘no'(Manners, RiddhiShah, 2005). Religion, education and social class all influence greetings in India. This is a hierarchical culture, so most senior persons or eldest are greeted first. Shaking hands is common, especially in the large cities among the more educated who are accustomed to dealing with westerners. Men may shake hands with other men and women may shake hands with other women; however there are seldom handshakes between men and women because of religious beliefs. They say â€Å"Namaste† by putting two palms together as a respectful greeting. Business cards are exchanged after the initial handshake and greeting. Using left hand to exchange business cards or gifts is considered disrespectful. It is also important to know that Hindus do not eat beef and Muslims do not eat pork (Meeting/Dining Etiquette, kwintessential, 2009). In Indian society, aggressiveness can often be interpreted as a sign of disrespect. This may lead to a complete lack of communication and motivation on the part of the Indians. Criticism about an individual's ideas or work needs to be done constructively, without damaging that person’s self-esteem (Doing Business in India, 2009). Hospitality is a key part of doing business in India; most business discussions will not even begin until tea is served and there has been some preliminary talk (Manners, Riddhi Shah, 2005). Indians prefer to do business with those they know. Relationships are built upon mutual trust and respect. In general, Indians prefer to have long-standing personal relationships prior to doing business. It may be a good idea to go through a third party introduction. Labor is abundant in India. It is currently estimated to have a total workforce of 397 million where agricultural and allied sectors accounted for about 60 percent of the total workforce. Only 28 million workers are employed in the organized sectors. Almost70 percent of the Indian workforce is under the age of 30, and 80 percent of the young people entering the workforce do not have high-school education or skills that are needed in the job market (Human Capital, 2009). With a majority of unskilled labor, many well-educated individuals within the ranks of the unemployed and under-employed, including technicians and engineers, can also be found without much difficulty. One area of focus for both Indian and foreign investors has been on information technology. This sector has been described as the engine of growth of the Indian economy. The Indian software industry is growing at a rate of more than 50 percent a year, and the country appears to be on track to achieve IT exports of $50 billion by 2010. Approximately 10,000 Internet companies were established in India in 1999, and after years of experiencing a brain-drain effect, Indians are returning home to start and work for technology companies. However, labor shortages are beginning to occur at the highest levels of some service industries especially in IT enabled services (Human Capital, 2009). The numbers of persons with managerial and other white-collar skills are increasing as newly established management institutes begin to produce graduates. There are 5,114 industrial training institutes as well, which have a total capacity of around 742,000 students, offering courses in engineering and non-engineering trades. Even for those graduates from professional disciplines, quality of education imparted is a major issue. Only 25% of engineers, 15% of finance, and accounting professionals and 10% of professionals with Indian degrees are suitable for work in multinationals companies (Globalization and education, 2008). It is important for an investor to meet local business community and start networking at Indian trade fairs to make the right connections. Local business consultants, government agencies and local US embassy also provide necessary information and assistance to start up a business there. It is also good to think of using a local agent or setting up your own office and take legal advice on regulations that may apply to the product or service. V. Industry Specific Information There are hundreds of privately owned companies that make small motors in India but there are no public companies that manufacture this product. Since private companies are not required to disclose their activities and financial information to the public, there no industry information available to us. There are at least 450 small motor manufacturers and suppliers in India (Electric Motors, India Mart). The existence of huge number of manufactures indicates that the small appliance industry is doing quite well. Some manufacturers sell their products within the country and some of them have extended their market to other countries. For instance, one of the largest manufacturers and suppliers of small motors in India, New Bharat Group, sells its products to at least 23 countries in Asia and Africa (Export, New Bharat Group). It will be one of the biggest competitors among many other competitors. Along with the economic growth and rapid urbanization, the Indian household appliances market has been growing each year. The household appliances market reflects the sale of six product sectors: refrigeration appliances, washing appliances, vacuum cleaners, dishwashers, room comfort appliances and cooking appliances. The Indian ousehold appliances market generated total revenues of $4. 8 billion in 2008. In 2013, the Indian household appliances market is forecasted to have a value of $7. 7 billion, an increase of 60. 7% since 2008 (Market Analysis, Datamonitor). It indicates that there is a possibility that the market size of electric motors in India will even get bigger. The availability of raw material suppliers is fa vorable to the small motor manufacturers because metal industry is one of the leading industries in Indian economy. Some other materials could be imported from neighboring country China as well (Electric Motors, Indiamart). VI. Benefits and liabilities of current situation Deciding where to locate productive activities for a manufacturing planet is a major business decision in which various risks need to be accessed to ensure the long-term strategic role of the firm and country align. In our case study we decided to own foreign production activities instead or outsourcing and developing a complete turnkey solution. While initial start-up cost and risk increase there is also a direct relationship between profitability. While production activities may already be organized, more focus must be placed on the logistics of the operation. How will the firm acquire materials? How is the location strategic towards business processes? Our organization must look beyond firm specific and product factors that may effect production, and focus on political risk, exchange risk, market risk, etc. If our company begins developing small motors for the appliances we already sell, then our manufacturing planet will aid in making our company more vertically integrated. Being able to supply components required to build the finished product lowers cost, protects proprietary technology, and improves overall business efficiency and practice. Considering equity ownership varies among industries, our manufacturing facility will most likely have to be in conjunction with a local firm. However, considering the engineering and operational expertise, Indian firms that can provide a strategic alliance or joint venture may benefit our organization and business process. Labor capital is one of the main reasons U. S companies have outsourced operations to India. From a human resources perspective India has a young population that’s educated and English speaking – a manufacturing facility would have no problems acquiring college grads for anagement and engineering positions while also obtaining machinist and assembly line workers. The overall labor cost used in the production of appliances would be less in comparison to the United States and quality would not be sacrificed. International human resource management will play a vital role for the firm as a strategy needs to be implemented to get amalgamated to the host c ountry through cultural, language, and practical training. A partnership or strategic alliance will help our international labor relations an ability to develop a competitive advantage while enhancing bargaining power. Compensation would be based on equalizing the base salary in terms of purchasing power between the countries; the standard of living in the home country would be on par for the host country. India with over 1. 1 billion people not only makes for a premier location to operate a manufacturing facility, but more importantly a marketplace for its appliances. Our firm has decided to implement a global standardization strategy that utilizes the local labor force. We feel this strategy is best for reaping cost reductions, economies of scale, and value added location economics. A global strategy would best serve our facility over a transnational or localization strategy because our product doesn’t have to be tailored to tastes across different geographic markets. Considering differences in consumer tastes and preferences don’t change much in what is required of appliances; our manufacturing facility should be focused on achieving economies of scale and utilizing various distribution channels locally with strategic partnerships. India also has several resource endowments that will help in reducing cost of raw materials from accessibility and ease. In addition being close to raw materials required for production reduces transportation cost while shipping cost are also reduced from have a facility in the middle of Asia, the largest potential market. India has a developed and regulated political economy with an individualistic mentality. The nation has a democratic political system in which government officials are elected through the people either directly or indirectly. While political risk does exist given the controlling political party (United Progressive Alliance) drives from socialist and communist ideologies. However, the government is a democracy and the citizens realize a free-market approach is best for their society; thus we consider the government politically stable without the risk found in totalitarian regimes. The economic system in India is evolving and moving towards a market economy, but currently has the elements of a mixed economy with some regulatory restrictions. As the finance minister continues to enact polices that discourage government intervention and open up markets for trade and investment – the economy is rapidly evolving into modern capitalistic system. Along with regulated and historically stable financial markets the legal system also has the framework necessary for protecting intellectual property and ownership. Business laws and incentives have been enacted to encourage foreign development and investment; corporate tax rates have been reduced and equity ownership caps have increased. After accessing the political, economic, and legal environment we believe the potential return and value creation offsets the risk and possible implications faced by operating a facility in India. Inherent with divesting operations internationally the host firm accepts a degree of translation, transaction, and economic exposure. However, given the fundamentals on the U. S dollar outlook in the economic environment section we believe future favorable exchange rate fluctuations will increase the value of our company’s equities, assets, cash flow, and earnings. The caste system is still present in India, but the government has outlawed caste-based discrimination, and their social stratification allows for upward mobility. Considering socioeconomic factors bring production to India not only reduces cost, but will help our firm penetrate a potentially large marketplace as Indian consumers will be more likely to purchase products developed and produced in their home country. VII. Expectations of country competitiveness related to industry The household appliances market is rapidly expanding in emerging countries such as India and China where demand is driven by an emerging middle class. In India it is expected by 2012 the middle class population will be size of our total population, around 300 million. The manufacturing industry specifically dealing with the production of small-motors is a saturated marketplace consisting of over 450 companies. Industry leaders include the New Bharat Group and Havells which supply small motors across Asia and Africa. Considering the concentration of firms in this segment it would probably be most beneficial for our company to partner with a retail distribution chain or technology firm that will be sure to add value while protecting our business processes. Our strategic lliance or joint venture would only be done if it was a government requirement due to foreign investment regulations which it probably will. Given the pace of technological innovation and capital investment the industry is bound to experience heighten competition and barriers to entry in India. Consolidation within the industry is unlikely in the near term as sheer population growth and consumerism we expect will outpace the influx in supply. VIII. Itinerary The itinerary for our cou ntry visit can be found in Appendix D.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Many Forms of the Verb TO BE

The Many Forms of the Verb TO BE The Many Forms of the Verb TO BE The Many Forms of the Verb TO BE By Maeve Maddox After reading O Second Person Where Art Thou reader Bill G asks: How can I explain to my students why the singular â€Å"you† takes the plural verb â€Å"are?† Is there something obvious I am missing? Even â€Å"thou† took â€Å"art.† What is the history of this shift? The answer to the first part of this question is that are is the form of the verb that goes with you. If you can be either singular or plural, so can are: You are the one person I love. (singular) You are the best friends in the world. (plural) The only other word for are that ever went with you was sind (or sindon). Clearly, that one hasnt survived into Modern English. Of all Modern English verbs, to be has the most forms: am, are, is, was, were, be, being, been. In addition, the helping verb will is used to form a future tense with be (e.g. I will be with you in a minute.) The forms are so different in appearance that they dont seem to belong to the same verb. The fact is, they dont. Oh, they do now, but they came from three different roots and merged in the Old English verbs beon and wesan. (NOTE: Since I dont know how to import the special OE symbols, Ill use th for the /th/ sound and y for the yot.) In a conjugation of the Old English (West Saxon dialect) verb beon/wesan, todays English speaker will recognize the modern forms in: ic eom =I am thu eart =thou art ic waes =I was ye waere =you were You are, however, was written in West Saxon as ye sind. Although ye earun or ye aron did exist in a northern dialect of Old English, sind is the word for are in most of the Old English literature that survives. But for a fluke of history, we could just as easily be saying you sind as you are. An interesting footnote is that English once had three grammatical numbers and not just two. Modern English has two numbers: singular and plural. Old English had three: singular, dual, and plural. Each number had its own set of pronouns: First person: ic=I wit =two-person we we =more-than-two-persons we Second person: thu = thou yit =you two ye =yall Third person: he =he hit =it heo =she hie =they (For a complete explanation, see the relevant sections in Sweets Anglo-Saxon Primer or Wardales An Old English Grammar.) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Yours faithfully or Yours sincerely?3 Cases of Complicated HyphenationThe Uses of â€Å"The†

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Issue with Scapegoating Social Problems Essays

The Issue with Scapegoating Social Problems Essays The Issue with Scapegoating Social Problems Paper The Issue with Scapegoating Social Problems Paper Essay Topic: Social Issues Social inequalities and the so-called War on Drugs have put drug abuse under a lens by where victims of larger social problems, such as unemployment, poverty, lack of mobility due to race and place are not only viewed as the cause of the problems they face, but an enemy in this War on Drugs. As well, the concern by policy makers at large on the erosion of traditional family values is blamed on drug abuse and not vice versa. The inability to accept shifting family paradigms and coupling the changing myriad of family structures with an erosion of values is troubling. Equally troubling is the problem of power with those in power refusing to yield and instead fighting to keep their own power and status by scapegoating those that have none. Instead of looking at institutional problems that promote anomie and a sense of alienation from others due to the status quo, these concerned policy-makers make this a personal issue and thus drug abuse is only a personal problem from their standpoint. In such a Capitalist society as the United States, all problems are made into individual problems. If a person is in poverty, it is viewed as a lack of initiative on their part, if their are abusing drugs it is because they are deviant, and so on. This leads to institutionalized alienation of those in need and contempt by those who can help. By a society taking a collective approach to all its citizens and understanding that stunting the growth of individuals when they need it, may only lead that person to a state where drug abuse, crime, and poverty seem the only place that they play any role in their world. Changing attitudes and providing systemic solutions to many social problems, such as drug use, is the only way to provide respite and resolution from this scenario that continues to play out in our society. References Heiner, Robert. Social Problems: An Introduction to Critical Constructionism. (2006). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp 105-146.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Biography of Louise McKinney

The Biography of Louise McKinney A temperance advocate, Louise McKinney was one of the first two women elected to the Alberta Legislative Assembly and one of the first two women elected to a legislature in Canada and in the British Empire. An excellent debater, she worked on legislation to help people with disabilities, immigrants, and widows and separated wives. Louise McKinney was also one of the Famous Five Alberta women who fought and won the political and legal battle in the Persons Case to have women recognized as persons under the BNA Act. Birth September 22, 1868, in Frankville, Ontario Death July 10, 1931, in Claresholm, Northwest Territories (now Alberta) Education Teachers College in Ottawa, Ontario Professions Teacher, temperance and womens rights activist and Alberta MLA Causes of Louise McKinney temperance educationstronger liquor controlwomens property rights and the Dower Act Political Affiliation Non-Partisan League Riding (Electoral District) Claresholm Career of Louise McKinney Louise McKinney was a teacher in Ontario and then in North Dakota.She moved to a homestead near Claresholm, Northwest Territories in 1903.Louise McKinney became involved in the Womans Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) while in North Dakota and organized a chapter in Claresholm. She continued as an organizer for the WCTU for more than 20 years, eventually becoming acting president of the national organization.Louise McKinney was elected to the Alberta Legislative Assembly in 1917, in the first election in which Canadian women could run for office or vote. Suspicious of the political donations made by large brewing and liquor companies to the major parties, Louise McKinney ran under the banner of the Non-Partisan League, an agrarian movement.With the help of Henrietta Muir Edwards, Louise McKinney introduced the bill that became the Dower Act, which guaranteed a woman a third of the family estate when her husband died.Louise McKinney was defeated in the 1921 Alberta election and did no t run again. Louise McKinney was one of four women to sign the Basis of Union forming the United Church of Canada in 1925.Louise McKinney was one of the Famous Five Alberta women in the Persons Case which established the status of women as persons under the BNA Act in 1929.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Art and Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Art and Technology - Essay Example This section of the Tapestries provides information dated back to a time when the battle had not taken place. The choice to explore the Battle of Hastings is critical to gaining knowledge that relates to the fact that the battle marked the very last time that the Island was conquered by a foreign power. This section therefore provides a one-time conflict that any scholar throughout the world ought to know about. Ubiquitous is defines as act of being everywhere, all at the same time (Smith 53). Ubiquitous computing is a form of computing paradigm that is considered to be the next big thing in the computer industry. Every day is characterized by a number of ubiquitous computing elements and activities. One of these is mobile devices in the context of Ubiquitous computing. Mobile development has developed mobile capacities and capabilities to a more complex aspect, allowing mobile devices to handle user environments; like setting up reminders based on the location of the phone. Biometrics is another ubiquitous computing observed. It is a privacy control mode of computing characteristic to many firms and organizations. Biometrics employs physical characteristics, and a user can be identified by simply touching the ubiquitous device. Ubiquitous networking is another example. Computing activities and performance heavily dwells on networking. Transmitted computing networks are not visible yet they are actually put into use. Ubiquitous networks range from low power, short range, ad hoc to wireless networks and systems (Smith

Friday, October 18, 2019

The Effect Of Music Education On Children Between The Ages Of Three Research Paper

The Effect Of Music Education On Children Between The Ages Of Three And Five - Research Paper Example Todd McFlicker has written an article that outlines the many ways that an education in music can help develop a child’s cognitive skills in order to increase success in education and in endeavors post education. He suggests that it is clearly evident that music can stimulate creativity and elevate mood in children, but it has become evident from a variety of studies that music can increase cognitive development to the point that a child can significantly realize a benefit. McFlicker (2010) quotes Dr Gordon Shaw, a specialist in brain theory, in saying that children who learn to play the piano develop a higher level of spatial-temporal reasoning. Helen Neville, PhD has taken the theory of the relationship of a music education to the cognitive development of three to five year olds into the field and received positive results that allow for some confirmation of the positive effect of music education, however, not for reasons that are related directly to music. The use of music a s a tool for increasing cognitive development in small children is somewhat supported, but the individuated attention and the focus on detail awareness may be at the core of the benefit.

Application of the Cantor Model of Assertive Discipline on Middle Essay

Application of the Cantor Model of Assertive Discipline on Middle School Students - Essay Example The credo upheld by the familiar phrase promotes a sense of authority for the elder to exercise his right over the child. The elder does so with the intention to correct the child of a misdeed and with the purpose of restoring him to a pleasing and proper character. On one hand, it does not permit a loose and passive control of the behavior of the child for no evil deed goes unpunished. On the other hand, it should not, however, get into the verge of total prohibition nor physical abuse for a wrongdoing for the goal is to restore the child. If done beyond appropriate bounds, the child may resent or may develop a sense of fear. A similar philosophy can be applied in the context of classroom management. The Cantor Model, specifically, fosters this idea. The model stresses the importance of assertive discipline. Teachers have to ensure that the class upholds respect for authority and that students may behave as they please but with caution and awareness that they are responsible for the ir actions (Allen, 1996). Body The Cantor Model can be very suitable for Middle School students because in its practice, the students are given the freedom to learn in a fashion they want but they will be made to really think before they act. Being aware that they will be held liable for any inappropriate behavior, they will first have to assess if an action they wish to perform will be beneficial for them or not. This way, critical thinking may be cultivated in them. The age bracket of Middle School generally falls under the start of the adolescent stage. Sixth to eighth graders would fall in this category. It is the stage when the teen wants to explore more, but may have a struggle with his identity. It is also the stage when he may show occasional rudeness to parents, believing they interfere in his independence. Peer groups generally influence his personal style. The teen may also exhibit childish behaviors when stressed. However, it is good to note that at this developmental le vel, the youth becomes more efficient is using speech to express himself, more interested in intellectual pursuits, and is more able to do work may it be physical, intellectual or emotional (Normal Adolescent Development, 2001). Being guided accordingly by the Canter Model, the educator can use several strategies for classroom management for sixth to eighth graders, maintaining proper overall conduct of the class, without being passive nor hostile. Middle School students will be allowed to practice their independence by choosing a learning style that is suitable for them but the teacher ensures that the classroom rules are not bent just to cater to the demands of students. Firstly, the educator may use student engagement strategies to keep students on task. This method recognizes that there is no single formula to get the attention of all the students. Each has his own interests that will get the student working on the task. In application, the teacher may have the class view a film related to the topic being discussed. They shall then make a reflection on it in a way they deem creative but personal. They can express their opinions through their preferred interest—they can make a song, a poem, a story, a drawing, etc. The educator can give a hint of assertiveness in simply setting a strict deadline, or specifications (e.g. story should not be less than ten pages long, or the song should only have a maximum of five minutes

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Review Questions Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Review Questions - Assignment Example On the other hand, the scanners are available that can scan bulky documents such as a whole book with high quality. These peripheral devices have impacted a lot in the world of business uses computers. Q # 2 – Computer Hardware Development It is expected that in the next ten years the hardware would be developed to support and enable the disable individuals for using the computer technologies. The hardware could include the peripheral devices so that the blind and deaf individuals can interact with the computer. Therefore, the standard peripheral devices i-e keyboard and mouse would likely to become obsolete and their dependency would be eliminated. The existing hardware technologies and devices would expect to be more effective and powerful in terms high speed and capacity. It is likely to happen that the hardware development organizations would work on the wireless devices to make them standard or norm for almost every business. These all hardware would facilitate the users to use the computer systems in more easy way with more effective manner. Q # 3 – Types of Computer System The computers are turning out to be more powerful with passing time in terms of high computing speed, increased storage capacity of data, and the capability to execute a number of diverse functions and purposes, for example, the computers are capable of transmitting voice and video communication regardless of physical distance. Moreover, the computers are growing to be more physically lesser in size, faster in speed, inexpensive, more reliable, easy-to-use and user friendly through a Graphical User Interface. These characteristics of the computers are categorized into three diverse computer systems include: the mainframe computers, midrange computers and the micro-computers. Q # 4 – Software Usage in Business There are diverse software packages that a business may require to use them in the office but this particularly depends on the nature of the business. However , the essential software package for survival of any business is Word Processing, Spreadsheets, PowerPoint, Outlook or e-mailing and Web browser. The Word processing allows the user to write or type a formatted text and the spreadsheets allows the users to perform calculations and decision making by analyzing the data which might be essential for any business. Formal presentations are a significant aspect of a business; therefore, the business can use diverse software such as PowerPoint that can incorporate animation, sound, graphics, charts etc. The Outlook can be used for emailing to communicate with internal and external users; moreover, the users can schedule meetings by inviting other users. The web browser is essential for utilizing the facility of the internet – a sea of information, moreover, the users can also access the intranet and extranet with the use of a web browser. Q # 5 – Future Software Packages As I have mentioned above that the hardware would be de veloped keeping in view the disable individuals, the same is the case with software would also be in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The future software applications would facilitate the users to diagnose and resolve the issues on their own or update themselves automatically when the next release or patch is available. The upcoming software packages would be inter-operable and manageable because of the availability and adaptability of open source format standards. It is

Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Techniques on Chronic Pain in Dissertation - 1

Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Techniques on Chronic Pain in Cancer Patients - Dissertation Example As the discussion declares studies relating to methods of pain relief in cancer patients using alternative methods of pain relief, other than pharmacological-based methods, are inconclusive on the effect of relaxation towards alleviating pain. In view of the fact that pharmacological methods use is prominent among cancer patients, these drugs exposes them to serious side effects such as loss of effectiveness with time or even inadequate pain relief among other side effects. NPPRIs are complementary pain management approaches and they include cutaneous stimulation such as massages, transcutaneous electrical stimulation and cognitive behavioral such as relaxation techniques. Muscle tension is minimized through relaxation techniques as they create powerful distractions. Cancer pain relief through relaxation techniques such as PMR is gaining ground among patients. PMR, as a relaxation technique, may break the cycle of pain, anxiety and reduce muscle tension. This review will examine evid ence of PMR where it is linked to relieving chronic pain in cancer patients. Data will be mined from systematic literature and analysed so as to identify the role, effectiveness and degree onto which PMR techniques can be used to relief pain in cancer patients. According to the research findings progressive muscle relaxation, a non pharmacological pain relief intervention (NPPRI) technique, involves the systematic tensing and relaxing of skeletal muscles of the body. PMR may involve a few muscles for patients in acute pain in a clinical environment.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Review Questions Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Review Questions - Assignment Example On the other hand, the scanners are available that can scan bulky documents such as a whole book with high quality. These peripheral devices have impacted a lot in the world of business uses computers. Q # 2 – Computer Hardware Development It is expected that in the next ten years the hardware would be developed to support and enable the disable individuals for using the computer technologies. The hardware could include the peripheral devices so that the blind and deaf individuals can interact with the computer. Therefore, the standard peripheral devices i-e keyboard and mouse would likely to become obsolete and their dependency would be eliminated. The existing hardware technologies and devices would expect to be more effective and powerful in terms high speed and capacity. It is likely to happen that the hardware development organizations would work on the wireless devices to make them standard or norm for almost every business. These all hardware would facilitate the users to use the computer systems in more easy way with more effective manner. Q # 3 – Types of Computer System The computers are turning out to be more powerful with passing time in terms of high computing speed, increased storage capacity of data, and the capability to execute a number of diverse functions and purposes, for example, the computers are capable of transmitting voice and video communication regardless of physical distance. Moreover, the computers are growing to be more physically lesser in size, faster in speed, inexpensive, more reliable, easy-to-use and user friendly through a Graphical User Interface. These characteristics of the computers are categorized into three diverse computer systems include: the mainframe computers, midrange computers and the micro-computers. Q # 4 – Software Usage in Business There are diverse software packages that a business may require to use them in the office but this particularly depends on the nature of the business. However , the essential software package for survival of any business is Word Processing, Spreadsheets, PowerPoint, Outlook or e-mailing and Web browser. The Word processing allows the user to write or type a formatted text and the spreadsheets allows the users to perform calculations and decision making by analyzing the data which might be essential for any business. Formal presentations are a significant aspect of a business; therefore, the business can use diverse software such as PowerPoint that can incorporate animation, sound, graphics, charts etc. The Outlook can be used for emailing to communicate with internal and external users; moreover, the users can schedule meetings by inviting other users. The web browser is essential for utilizing the facility of the internet – a sea of information, moreover, the users can also access the intranet and extranet with the use of a web browser. Q # 5 – Future Software Packages As I have mentioned above that the hardware would be de veloped keeping in view the disable individuals, the same is the case with software would also be in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The future software applications would facilitate the users to diagnose and resolve the issues on their own or update themselves automatically when the next release or patch is available. The upcoming software packages would be inter-operable and manageable because of the availability and adaptability of open source format standards. It is

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

WalMart Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

WalMart - Essay Example The city council in Chicago has even passed an ordinance disallowing Wal-Mart from opening within city limits. This paper argues whether Wal-Mart is a destructive force or is good for the local economy. Wal-Mart has 3,400 stores in the US and is largest employer in US second only to the Federal Government. It is the largest grocer and plans to open 100 Supercenters in the next five years. It is sheer size, growth and profitability of Wal-Mart that it is in a position to define corporate trends. It is now in a position that it can dictate and perfect the nature of discount stores. Wal-Mart has the image of a friendly, all-American company employing happy workers and smiling greeters who are eager to help and grateful to work at Wal-Mart (Bianchi & Swinney, 2004). As a globalizing force, Wal-Mart exerts influence on the regional, local and national economy. It has restructured the American workforce and consumer behavior (Lavallee & Boyer, 2006). Its basic strategies revolutionized the global retain industry and led Wal-Mart to unprecedented heights. Wal-Mart never avoids critics. On the contrary they respond actively as they did when the city council of Los Angeles proposed to ban the store from the city. Wal-Mart revealed through a study of the economic impact that average savings per family per ear would be $500 if Wal-Mart opened a store in Los Angeles (Bianchi & Swinney). Apart from this, new jobs would be created which further boosts the local economy as spending power goes up. Wal-Mart counters its critics with two words – low price. Its low price policy helps millions to buy more from their meager pay checks. They can even indulge in minor luxuries. This makes the entire economy more efficient and productive. In the micro level this translates into low prices with better product. At the macro level it means economic growth, more jobs and higher tax revenues. Wal-Mart has helped to hold down inflation in US. A McKinsey & Co. study

Elements of Reading Essay Example for Free

Elements of Reading Essay Reading is the process of making sense from print; comprehension is the goal of all reading. Comprehension is constructed by the reader, so no one understanding will match another’s, but how readers apply strategies as they process text influences the depth of understanding. There are four elements of reading: word identification, fluency, comprehension, vocabulary. We will begin with word identification, since it is the foundation of the reading process. Word Identification  Several terms are associated with the identification of words: word attack, word analysis, word recognition, decoding. These are often used interchangeably and suggest the act of translating print into speech through the analysis of letter-sound relationships. Each term is connected with what is commonly called â€Å"phonics†Ã¢â‚¬â€a tool to analyze or attack words—which focuses attention on words parts and builds on phonemic awareness. â€Å"Word recognition† suggests a process of immediate word identification i. e. words retrieved from memory. It includes the concept of sight words (or sight vocabulary) and suggests a reader’s ability to recognize words rapidly/automatically by making an association between a particular spelling/pronunciation/meaning by applying an internalized knowledge of letter-sound relationships. Word recognition together with word attack skills leads to word identification. Many children develop knowledge about print before entering school through purely visual cues. These children enter first grade fully ready to analyze words, but others do not. They rely on your explicitly-planned lessons. Ehri’s study (as cited in Vacca, Vacca, Gove, Burkey, Lenhart, McKeon, 2003) claimed that there were developmental phases in word identification, whose characteristics could be readily identified, as children progressed. †¢The pre-alphabetic stage includes visual clues, such as those found on cereal boxes, traffic signs, and restaurant logos (stop sign, Burger King, KFC, McDonald’s). †¢The partial alphabetic stage, emerging during kindergarten and grade 1, includes some knowledge about letter-sound relationships (â€Å"S† looks and sounds like â€Å"Sammy, the snake†). †¢The full alphabetic stage includes enough knowledge about segmenting sounds (/c-l-o-ck/) to unlock the pronunciation of unknown words. †¢The consolidated alphabetic stage includes the ability to analyze multisyllabic words, using onsets and rimes. Fluency Fluency is the ability to read text in a normal speaking voice with normal intonation (the rise and fall of the human voice) and inflection (the pitch, stress and pauses). In the context of literacy, one is â€Å"fluent,† who can read with expression and comprehension. Students who are fluent have automaticity. They do not devote attention to decoding, but focus on the construction of meaning. Problems in fluency are a major contributing factor to students’ lagging achievement. They often arise due to the lack of early contact with literacy or diverse linguistic background. Repetition is key to increasing fluency. A mixture of six methods helps to increase fluency. †¢Predictable text: Children can rely on their intuitive knowledge of language and sense to read with less and less assistance. Ex. Max’s Pet †¢Repeated readings: Children can practice reading aloud alone, with a classmate or parents, and to the principal. †¢Automated reading: Children can listen and read along with a tape, a CD, or a computer program. They can also record themselves, listen, and repeat until fluent. †¢Choral reading: Children need to hear mature readers with expression. The oral reading of poetry with various voice combinations builds on a natural interest in rhythms and highlights the beauty of tonal qualities in spoken English. In choral reading, all fluency levels can participate in unison, take parts, or read refrains without embarrassment. †¢Readers’ Theater: This oral presentation of drama, prose or poetry involves children of all ages reading literature to audiences of children. With a few props, perhaps, but no costumes and no memorized lines, the emphasis is on what the audience hears. †¢Sustained Silent Reading (SSR): Classes and sometimes entire schools establish a daily, fixed time period for silent reading of self-selected material. Teachers also read, and there are no content-related questions asked. Stories (or a copy of them) can be sent home for rereading, after students have become very familiar with them by rereading during class. The goal is to increase the â€Å"pleasure principle† and enable children to become lifelong readers. Comprehension To understand text, a reader actively searches for meaning and responds to text as s/he decodes. Readers learn to monitor their own comprehension through metacognition. The dimensions of active reading comprehension involve specific questioning skills that require readers to â€Å"grapple with text† in order to organize their background knowledge, clarify ideas and support opinion. †¢Question/Answer Strategy †¢Ask questions that elicit questions in return. Such questions stimulate interest/arouse curiosity; they draw students into the story. Ex. Not â€Å"What is this picture about? † but â€Å"What would you like to know about this picture? † †¢Question/Author Strategy †¢Students engage in dialog with the author: What is the author trying to say? What does the author mean? Is x consistent with what the author told us before? †¢Think-Aloud Strategy †¢Teachers model the think-aloud process initially in order to help students learn to make inferences, using clues from the text and background knowledge to make logical guesses about meaning. K-W-L (What do I Know? What do I Want to learn? What I Learned) is one kind of graphic organizer, which is a visual to help students summarize and organize expository information. Building an awareness of underlying story structure enables students to organize information from narratives, so that they can better anticipate and make sense of what they read! †¢Simple structure: †¢Setting (Where? When? ) †¢Characters (Who? ) †¢Plot (Problem for which characters take action) †¢Complex structure: †¢Setting (Maybe more than one) †¢Characters †¢Plot (Two or more episodes with a chain of events; flashbacks, sometimes! ) Organizers are available commercially, but most teachers have a collection they may be happy to share. Vocabulary English has the largest vocabulary in the world: 600,000one million words. Students learn about 88,000 words by ninth grade in order to process text. It’s been estimated that children learn about three-four thousand words per year, which averages 16-22 words per day. Do we teach every single word? No; students acquire vocabulary on their own through usage, not via systematic instruction. What are words? They are labels for concepts, mental images of something. Ex. The word â€Å"picnic† will call to mind different ideas for everyone. We organize concepts into hierarchies by common features or similar criteria in order to make sense of complexity in our environment. Ex. The concept of â€Å"dog† has common characteristics, despite different breeds and behaviors. We have five vocabularies: listening, speaking, writing, reading, and body-language. The listening vocabulary develops first and is the largest until middle school, when the reading vocabulary becomes and ultimately remains the largest vocabulary. Our job as teachers is to promote students’ conceptual understanding of key vocabulary words, because learning words and expanding vocabulary has a strong influence on comprehension. What is the best means to teach vocabulary? Through multiple, varied encounters with words. Six principles to guide vocabulary instruction include featuring key words: †¢that convey major ideas in literature and content areas; †¢in relation to other words to develop shades of meaning; †¢in relation to students’ background knowledge; †¢in pre- and post-reading activities; †¢taught systematically, in depth, and reinforced; †¢that interest you: telling stories about the origin and derivation of words helps to create student interest in words. We organize knowledge into conceptual hierarchies, and vocabulary study is a key factor.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Mobile Phone use: Reaction Times

Mobile Phone use: Reaction Times The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of divided attention upon response time. Participants consisted of 51 female and 10 male students from the University of Canberra, ranging in age from 19- 60 years (M = 24.95, SD = 7.99). Participants were asked to complete a spatial cueing task while using their mobile phone to either send text messages or make phone calls. Data was collected using the universities computers on the program Cog Lab 2.0. Results revealed that the text and talk conditions for all task types (neutral, valid, and invalid) had significantly slower reaction times than the control condition. The text group showed significantly slower reaction times than the talk group. Furthermore, the control group showed that the reaction times for the valid tasks was significantly faster than the neutral, and significantly faster for the valid than invalid tasks. These results do support previous research and literature in the area of mobile phone use while driving. The use of mobile phones has grown over the last five years, with over 21.26 million users in Australia alone (White, Hyde, Walsh Watson, 2010). Despite increasing evidence that mobile phone use while driving presents risks; drivers still engage in this behaviour. A self- report study on mobile phone use while driving in Australia, found that 43 percent of mobile phone owners use their phones while driving to answer their calls, followed by making calls 36 percent, reading text messages 27 percent, and sending text messages 18 percent. Approximately a third of these drivers used hand free units, indicating that most Australian drivers use hand held mobile phones while driving (White Watson, 2010). The impairment potential of mobile phone usage while driving has been the focus of various behavioural and experimental studies. Although these studies differ in the extent of behavioural changes found, most researchers agree that there is a significant negative effect on different aspects of driving performance. The most common aspects are the withdrawal of attention and slower reaction times (Reed Green, 1999). The impact of driving while using a mobile phone on reaction time is often explained with reference to a phenomenon commonly referred to as inattentional blindness or change blindness (Strayer, Drews Johnston, 2003), wherein a person who is focusing attention on one particular task will fail to notice an unexpected stimulus even while directly looking at it (Simons Chabris, 1999). Strayer and Johnston (2003), determined that drivers conversing on a hands free mobile phone were more likely than drivers not using mobile phones to fail to notice traffic signals and respond slower to brake lights. As a result drivers were more likely to cause rear end accidents and less likely to be able to recall detailed information about specific visual stimuli (Strayer et al., 2003). These researchers also found this behaviour in participants who fixated their vision, suggesting that mobile phone conversations may induce inattentional blindness in the context of driving. However, Strayer Johnston (2003) considered that because they used a high- fidelity driving simulator that these results were conclusive of real life driving. These results may not be accurate in real life scenarios were participants would be driving on real roads with real vehicles. Beede Kass, (2006) also used a driving simulator to measure the impact of a conversation task on a hands free mobile phone and a signal detection task while driving. Results suggested driving performance in terms of traffic violations, was significantly impaired while participants converse on the hands free unit and overall performance in the signal detection task were low. Finally they found an interaction between the mobile phone conversation and a signal detection task in measures of speed, speed variability, reaction time and attention lapses (Beede Kass, 2006). However, drivers that are not subjected to distracting tasks may also fail to notice important features of the traffic environment. That is, even when scanning different parts of the visual scene appropriately, there is a risk that important features will be missed in unattended areas (Simons Chabris, 1999). In considering the phenomena of inattentional blindness, it is worth reiterating a key modifier, unexpected events. Generally, the occurrence of these inattentional failures seems to be reduced when the observer anticipates the object. Therefore, the unexpected events seem to be the most problematic. In the context of traffic, these may be somewhat harder to define quantitatively because these events can take on many different forms (Simons Chabris, 1999). A study conducted by Posner, Snyder Davidson, (1980) using a spatial cueing task, looked into the theory of expected versus unexpected events. They believe that participants responses to cued targets are usually faster and sometimes more accurate than responses to uncued targets. Results from the study conducted by Posner et al., (1980) suggest that participants were faster when the cue appeared in the same location (valid) and slowest when the cue appeared opposite the indicated cue (invalid). Posner, Snyder and Davidson, (1980) interpreted these results as showing that participants shifted their attention to the location of the target prior to its appearance. Equally, when participants were expecting the cue to appear in the opposite area, participants shifted attention to the wrong location. However, it may be possible to describe these results as being due to participants anticipation of the target position, or even chance. Alternatively, Simons Chabris (1999) provided a review of experiments in which participants focusing on visual tasks fail to notice unexpected visual stimuli, and present their own seminal explanation of the phenomenon. Results suggest that the probability of noticing the unexpected object depended on the similarity of the particular object within the display and the difficulty of the task. Simons Chabris (1999) add that the spatial proximity of the object to attended location did not affect the detection, suggesting that participants attend to objects and events, not positions (Simons et al., 1999). However, this study did not explore whether individual differences in noticing, take place from differences in the ability to perform the primary task. Strayer, Drews Crouch (2006) compared drivers using mobile phones to drunk drivers, concludingthat when controlling for driving difficulty and time on task, mobile-phone drivers exhibited a greater impairment than intoxicated drivers. Results of this study found that the reaction time of drivers using a mobile phone were slower by 8.4 percent relative to drivers who neither had consumed alcohol nor were using phones. Also drivers using mobile phones were actually more likely to have a rear- end crash than drivers who had consumed alcohol (Strayer Crouch, 2003). The impact of using a hands free phone on driving performance was not found to differ from the impact of using a hand held phone, which researchers suggested was due to the withdrawal of attention from the processing of information in the driving environment while engaging in mobile phone conversation (Strayer et al., 2003). However, the measures used for the two impairments mentioned above, are quite unusual. Mobile phone i mpairment is associated with the diversion of attention and is temporary, while the impairment from alcohol persists for longer periods of time. Furthermore, while mobile phone users have some kind of control (e.g. pausing a conversation) drivers who are intoxicated cannot do much to control their performance. Studies that have looked at the effects of texting while driving have also suggested a negative impact on drivers performance (Drews, Yazdani, Celeste, Godfrey Cooper, 2009). Research by Drews Cooper (2009) found a lack of response time in participants who used their mobile phones to send text messages while driving on a simulator. They concluded the texters in the driving simulator had more crashes, responded more slowly to the brake lights of cars in front of them- and showed more impairment in forward and sideways control than drivers who talked on their mobile phones while driving. (Drews et al. also found that text messaging participants longest eyes off the road duration was over six seconds. At 55mph this equates to a driver travelling the length of a football field without looking at the roadway. In summary, the purpose of this study is to explore the effects of divided attention on response time. To achieve this purpose, this study aims to measure response times in the neutral, valid, and invalid conditions of a spatial cueing task, while participants use their mobile phones to talk or text. Based on both theory and past research, it is hypothesised that the control group will have significantly faster reaction times over all groups (text and talk). It was also hypothesised that the reaction times for the control group across all task types (valid, invalid, and neutral) would be significantly different. More specifically, it was predicted that the task type for the valid condition would be faster than the neutral task, and significantly faster for the valid than the invalid task. It was hypothesised that there would be a significant difference between participants reaction times within the talk group across all three conditions (valid, invalid, and neutral) in contrast to th e text group. More specifically it was predicted that the reaction times for the talk group will be significantly faster overall compared to the text group. Method Participants The participants of this study consisted of 61 graduate and undergraduate students of the unit cognitive psychology, from the University of Canberra (51 female and 10 male). Ages ranged from 19 to 60 years (M = 24.95, SD = 7.99). Participants were allocated a condition based on their tutorial group. Tutorial one were allocated to the text condition, this group included 20 participants of which two performed the control condition due to non- availability of a mobile phone. Tutorial two participants were allocated to the talk condition, this group included 18 participants, of which one participant did the control condition. Tutorial three and four participants were allocated to the control condition, this group included 24 participants, of which three participants did the text condition. One participant was excluded from the study, as they did not record their mean response times. Materials All 61 participants were given a spatial cueing task on the universities computer during class tutorials. Participants used the computer program Cog Lab 2.0 to view and complete the cueing task. Each participant was given an instruction sheet as per his / her tutorial group. Participants within the text and talk condition used their own personal mobile phone. Procedure Student participants were divided into three groups as arranged by their tutorial time and group. These groups comprised of three conditions text, talk, and control. While in tutorials participants were given an instruction sheet and told to follow the instructions as per their group category (text, talk, or control). In order to maintain confidentiality participants were asked to select and record a code name. They were than asked to give their age, gender, and identify the group they had been assigned to. Each group of participants were given a set of instructions that were unique to their own group. The text group were told to complete the spatial cueing exercise while writing and sending three text messages. They were instructed not to answer their phone or talk to anyone else during the experiment. The talk group were instructed to make a series of short calls or one long call while taking part in the experiment. They were also told not to answer the phone or talk to any one else in the room. The control group were given instructions to focus only on the experiment and give it the same attention they would if driving a car on a busy road. They were told not to talk on the phone, message, or talk to anyone else in the room. Participants were then asked to complete the spatial cueing task on the computer (Cog Lab 2.0) per their assigned group. Design Variables: The independent variable in this study was the mobile phone = 3 levels, the dependant variable was response time. Results Effect of Condition on Reaction Time Mean reaction times for the Text group were slower than for the Talk group, and those for the Talk group were slower than the Control group. Mean reaction times for each condition on the Neutral, Valid and Invalid tasks are shown below in Figure 1. Figure 1. Mean reaction time for control, text and talk conditions across neutral, valid and invalid spatial cueing tasks. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA indicated a significant difference in reaction times across Control (Mean Rank = 15.0), Talk (Mean Rank = 31.3), and Text (Mean Rank = 48.3) conditions, H(2,61) = 38.60, p The significance level was reset to p = .02 using a Bonferroni correction. A Mann-Whitney U tests indicated that the Text group (Mean Rank = 33.48 for Neutral task, Mean Rank = 33.95 for Valid task, Mean Rank = 33.0 for Invalid task, n = 21) had significantly slower reaction times than the Control group (Mean Rank = 12.48 Neutral task, Mean Rank = 12.04 Valid task, Mean Rank = 12.91 Invalid task, n = 23), U = 11.0, z = -5.416;U = 1.0, z = -5.181; U = 21.0, z = -5.651; (corrected for ties), p Follow-up Mann-Whitney U tests indicated that the Talk group (Mean Rank = 28.59, Mean Rank = 29.24, Mean Rank = 28.18, n = 17) also had significantly slower reaction times than the Control group (Mean Rank = 14.52 Neutral task, Mean Rank = 14.04 Valid task, Mean Rank = 14.83 Invalid task, n = 23), U = 58.0, z = -3.762; U = 47.0, z = -4.063; U = 65.0, z = -3.57; (not corrected for ties) , p Follow-up Mann-Whitney U tests indicated the Text group (Mean Rank = 25.81, Mean Rank = 26.86, Mean Rank = 26.05, n = 21) had significantly slower reaction times than the Talk group (Mean Rank = 11.71 Neutral task, Mean Rank = 10.41 Valid task, Mean Rank = 11.41 Invalid task, n = 17), U = 46.0, z = -3.89; U = 24.0, z = -4.536; U = 41.0, z = -4.037; (not corrected for ties), p Effect of Task Type on Reaction Time A Friedman ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in reaction times across task type for the control group, à Ã¢â‚¬ ¡2(2) = 24.09, p Discussion This study explored the effects of divided attention on response time. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA did show a significant difference between reaction times across all three conditions (control, talk and text). However this analysis leaves the ambiguous situation of not knowing which condition/s differed more so than others. A second analysis was performed, this revealed that response times for the text group across all task types (valid, invalid, and neutral) were significantly slower than the control group, the effect was large. Results also revealed that the response times for the talk group across all task types were significantly slower than the control group; the effect was medium to large. These results are consistent with the first hypothesis. Previous studies much more scientific than ours, conducted in vehicle simulators have also found a significant relationship between similar aspects of texting, talking, and driving. However, drawing comparisons between this s tudies results and past studies results, issues arise over the current studies methods. This study was not employed in a driving simulator, nor was the task undertaken in a real driving environment or vehicle. Participant simply sat in front of a computer in a class room where they were told to imagine driving a car on a busy road. There is no possible way this would accurately represent actual driver duties or a real driving environment. The sample size is also quite questionable and would not represent the current driving population. A future benefit for this study would be to create a more legitimate driving environment and increase the sample size. The results of the fourth analysis also supported the hypothesis; these results showed the text group to have significantly slower reaction times than the talk group across all task types, the effect was large. Results are also consistent with past research on texting, driving and mobile phone use. Although, this study was not performed in a real or simulated driving environment these results were expected because texting required the participants to remove their eyes and attention away from the computer screen. However, these results only indicated a difference between reaction times, they do not suggest where the difference lies or how much interference can be attributed to the manual manipulation of the phone (e.g. texting), or how much can be attributed to the demands placed on attention by the phone conversation. A benefit to future studies would be to measure each one of these underlining factors separately and then compare those with other activities commonly engaged during dr iving. The last analysis showed there was a significant difference in reaction times across task type for the control group. More specifically results showed reaction time for valid tasks to be significantly faster than for neutral tasks, and significantly faster for the valid than the invalid. These effects were described as large. This result also supports the hypothesis and the previous study conducted by Posner and Davidson, (1980). However, most spatial cueing experiments including this one have been concerned with the effect of directing attention on the detection of stimuli. Little has been done on the influence of visual attention on higher-level cognitive tasks, i.e., where a response would involve making a decision between two or more alternatives (Johnston, McCann Remington, 1995). According to Johnston et al. (1995) responding to a higher-level cognitive task and detecting a stimulus may only be the first stage or a single process in a series of mental procedures involved in th e response. Directing attention to the location of the stimulus might result in faster detection of the stimulus. It may be beneficial for this study and others like it to explore this theory more comprehensively. References Beede, K. E., Kass, S. T. (2006). Engrossed in conversation: The impact of cell phones on simulated driving performance. Accident Analysis Prevention, 38, 415-421. Retrieved from http://www.Canberra.edu.au/library Drews, F. A., Yazdani, H., Celeste, N., Godfrey, Cooper, J. M., Strayer, D. L. (2009). Text Messaging during simulated driving. Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 51, 762-770. Johnston, J. C., McCann, R. S., Remington, R. W. (1995). Chronometric evidence for two types of attention. Journal of Psychological Sciences, 6, 365-386. Posner, M. I., Snyder, R. R., Davidson, B. J. (1980). Attention and the detection of signals, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 109, 160-174. Reed, M. P., Green, P. A. (1999). Comparison of driving performance on-road and in a low-cost simulator using a concurrent telephone dialling task. Ergonomics, 42, 1015-1037. Simons, D. J., Chabris, C. F. (1999). Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception, 28, 1059-1074. Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A., Crouch, D. J. (1999). A comparison of the cell phone driver and the drunk driver. Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 48, 381-391. Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A., Johnston, W. A. (2003). Cell phone- induced failures of visual attention during simulated driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 9, 23-32. White, K. M., Hyde, M. K., Walsh, S. P., Watson, B. (2010). Mobile phone use while driving: An investigation of the beliefs influencing drivers hands- free and hand- held mobile phone use. Journal of Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13, 9-20. Retrieved from http://www. canberra.edu.au/library Self-evaluation Form for Cognitive Psychology 2010 Lab Report For each item in the table, highlight or bold the description that fits your work for that component of the lab report. HD D CR P F Title n/a n/a n/a > 12 words Abstract concise, accurate and elegant description of problem, participants, experimental conditions, method, results, and conclusion. concise and accurate description of problem, participants, experimental conditions, method, results, and conclusion. D accurate description of problem, participants, experimental conditions, method, results, and conclusion (one omitted) generally accurate description of problem, participants, experimental conditions, method, results, and conclusion (up to two omitted) poor description of participants, problem, participants, experimental conditions, method, results, and conclusion (three of more omitted) Introduction concise, accurate and elegant introduction of the topic concise and accurate introduction of the topic accurate introduction of the topic CR generally accurate introduction of the topic, some minor errors of understanding less than accurate introduction of the topic comprehensive coverage of literature and substantial critical thought and analysis establishing importance, relevance and context of the issue comprehensive coverage of literature and sound critical thought and analysis establishing importance, relevance and context of the issue good understanding of the literature but limited critical analysis establishing importance, relevance and context of the issue CR good understanding of the literature but little or no critical analysis establishing importance, relevance and context of the issue little or no understanding of the literature or critical analysis establishing importance, relevance and context of the issue developed and justified argument for experiment using own ideas based on a wide range of sources which are thoroughly analysed, applied and discussed critical appraisal of the literature and theory from a variety of appropriate sources and developed own ideas in the process D clear evidence and application of readings relevant to topic and use of appropriate sources lit review is less complete than for D and HD literature is presented in a purely descriptive way (no critical thought); there may be limitations in understanding of the material literature is presented in a disjointed way with no critical thought and major limitations in understanding of the material exceptional understanding of problem and theoretical framework, and integration and innovative selection and handling of theories clear understanding of the general problem and theoretical framework and insightful and appropriate selection of theories good understanding of general problem and theoretical framework and most key theories are included in a straightforward manner CR adequate understanding of general problem and theoretical framework and selection of theory is appropriate but some aspects have been missed or misconstructed little or no understanding of the general problem and/or the theoretical framework concise, clear and accurate argument leading to a statement of hypotheses clear and accurate argument leading to a statement of hypotheses accurate argument leading to a statement of hypotheses CR generally accurate argument leading to a statement of hypotheses; hypotheses incomplete/inaccurate inaccurate or missing argument or statement of hypotheses Method concise, accurate and elegant description of participants, materials, design and procedures concise and accurate description of participants, materials, design and procedures accurate description of participants, materials, design and procedures CR generally accurate description of participants, materials, design and procedures (one may be missing) poor description of participants, materials, design and procedures; one or more of these may be missing experiment is completely and easily replicable from the information in the method experiment is completely replicable from the information in the method D experiment can be almost replicated from the information in the method errors are more noticeable and may be more serious experiment can be replicated with moderate accuracy from the information in the method one or two major errors experiment cannot be replicated with a satisfactory level of accuracy from the information in the method major and serious errors Results results from Moodle are included and correctly placed HD n/a n/a results from Moodle are included but incorrect placement or they have been altered results from Moodle are not included and/or correctly placed, or are not those provided via Moodle Discussion concise, accurate and elegant summary and interpretation of results related back to the hypotheses concise and accurate summary and interpretation of results related back to the hypotheses (only very minor errors) accurate summary and interpretation of results related back to the hypotheses (only minor errors) generally accurate summary and interpretation of results related back to the hypotheses (one or two more major errors) poor or inaccurate summary and interpretation of results related back to the hypotheses (major errors) comprehensive discussion of the results in relation to previous literature and theory, and substantial critical thought and analysis of where the current findings belong in the literature comprehensive discussion of the results of the results in relation to previous literature and theory and considerable critical thought and analysis of where the current findings belong in the literature sound discussion of the results in relation to previous literature and theory, and some critical thought and analysis of where the current findings belong in the literature CR reasonable discussion of the results in relation to previous literature and theory, but no critical thought or analysis of where the current findings belong in the literature poor discussion of the results in relation to previous literature and theory critically evaluation of evidence supporting conclusions including reliability, validity and significance comprehensive evaluation of the relevance and significance of results including reliability, validity and significance sound evaluation of the relevance and significance of the results including reliability, validity and significance CR satisfactory evaluation of the relevance and significance of the results including reliability, validity and significance little or no evaluation of the relevance and significance of the results including reliability, validity and significance exceptional interpretation of any unexpected results and discussion of alternative interpretations of findings clear interpretation of any unexpected results and discussion of alternative interpretations of findings good interpretation of any unexpected results and discussion of alternative interpretations of findings CR satisfactory interpretation of any unexpected results and discussion of alternative interpretations of findings little or no interpretation of any unexpected results or discussion of alternative interpretations of findings concise, clear and thoughtful discussion of problems, limitations and generalisability of the study, and implications for future research projects clear, accurate and thoughtful discussion of problems, limitations and generalisability of the study, and implications for future research projects D accurate and competent discussion of problems, limitations and generalisability of the study, and implications for future research projects discussion of problems, limitations and generalisability of the study, and implications for future research projects little or no discussion of problems, limitations or generalisability of the study, or implications for future research projects Norovirus: Causes and Solutions Norovirus: Causes and Solutions Contents Origin and spread of the Norovirus: Symptoms: Transmission in health care facility: Prevention of Norovirus: Preventive measures for spread of virus in health care facility: Early (or primary) control actions: Control of transmission at the ward level: Specific Nursing care for patients: Personal care: Proper hand hygiene: Extra care: Bibliography Essay Origin and spread of the Norovirus: Norovirus, occasionally acknowledged as the winter vomiting bug in the United Kingdom, is the utmost common reason of viral gastroenteritisin human beings. It affects individuals of all ages. The virus is transferred byfecally polluted water or food, by person-to-person interaction and through aerosolization of the disease and following adulteration of surfaces.The virus affects about 267 million individuals and reasons above 200,000 deceases every year; these deaths are frequently in less advanced republics and in the very young, aged and immunosuppressed. Norovirus infection is categorized by watery diarrhoea, forceful vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, and in several cases, general lethargy, muscle aches, loss of taste, headache, weakness and low-grade fever may arise. The illness is typically self-limiting, and severe sickness is rare. Though having norovirus can be spiteful, it is not generally hazardous and most that contact it make a full retrieval in a couple of days. Norovirus is speedily disabled by either adequate heating or by chlorine based disinfection, but the virus is less vulnerable to alcohols and cleaners. (Ben Lopman, 2011) Aftercontamination,resistanceto norovirus is usually partial and momentarywith one publication drawing the deduction that defensive immunity to the similar pressure of norovirus continues for six months, but that all such resistance is disappeared after two years. Outbursts of norovirus contagion often happen in closed or semi closed societies, such as long-term care amenities, overnight campsites, clinics, schools, dormitories, prisons, and cruise ships, where the contamination spreads very speedily either by person-to-person spread or through polluted food. Numerous norovirus outbursts have been outlined to food that was controlled by one infected individual. (Sears, 2008) The species name  Norovirusis derivative of Norwalk virus, the only kind of the genus. The species causes about 90% of epidemicnonbacterial outbursts of gastroenteritisround the domain,and may be accountable for 50% of all foodborne outbursts of gastroenteritis in the USA. Symptoms: Symptoms recorded by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) contain vomiting, non-bloody diarrhoea with stomach cramps and biliousness. These seem following a development period of 24-48 hours, though there are examples where signs present after only 12 hours succeeding disclosure to the virus.(Mcgeary, 2012) Blacklow (1996) found grown-up volunteers injected with the virus established a momentary mucosal laceration of the proximal minor intestine but had no colon association; this proposes norovirus infection frees the large intestine; hereafter faecal leucocytes do not exist in stool testers. This feature has been used to aid distinguish the contamination from others such as salmonellosis, C difficile infection orshigellosis. Transmission in health care facility: Noroviruses are found in the faeces and vomitus of infected individuals. This virus is very spreadable and can feast rapidly through healthcare amenities. People can become infested with the virus in numerous ways: Having straight contact with another individual who is infested (a healthcare employee, guest, or another patient) Ingestion food or drinking fluids that are polluted with norovirus. Touching tops or objects polluted with norovirus, and then touching your face or other food items. (HAIs, 2013) Prevention of Norovirus: In a healthcare capacity, patients with supposed norovirus may be located in isolated rooms or share accommodations with other patients with the identical infection. Extra prevention actions in healthcare amenities can reduce the chance of interacting with noroviruses: Follow hand-hygiene rules, and cautiously washing of hands with cleanser and water after interaction with patients with norovirus contagion. Use robes and gloves when in connection with, or caring for patients who are indicative of norovirus. Regularly clean and sterilize high touch patient exteriors and apparatus with an Environmental Protection Agency-approved produce with a tag claim for norovirus Eliminate and wash polluted clothing or linens Healthcare employees who have signs consistent with norovirus should be barred from work. Preventive measures for spread of virus in health care facility: The virus is characteristically conveyed to persons by the faecal-oral path from fecally polluted foodstuff or water, person-to-person interaction or interaction with polluted fomites. In current institutional outbreaks, airborne spread via vomiting has been suggested as expediting rapid spread of contagion. Once noroviruses are presented onto a region or floor, the contamination may spread speedily through the facility in spite of cohorting and actions to limit the feast of the contaminations. To support in the decision-making procedure for infirmaries and nursing homes when these contaminations happen, the Bureau of Communicable Diseases, Division of Public Health has collected a list of recommended, but not required control actions established from knowledge with organization of earlier hospital eruptions. The movements taken by diverse hospitals or nurturing homes may vary with the sum of cases and degree of spread within the facility. (health protection agency) Early (or primary) control actions: †¢ Once a catalogue case presents within an area, immediate separation of the patient and the instant area is necessary. †¢ Patients inflowing the hospital with indications evocative of norovirus contagions should be admitted straight to a private area until another cause of disease are recognized. †¢ The contamination control staff should be instantly notified about the beginning of the first case. †¢ Infection control run should meet every day to screen the outbreak and assess control actions. †¢ Support enteric defences and strategies to all staff associates. †¢ Staff should be repeated that good hand washing after all patient interaction (washing with warm running water and cleanser for at least 10 seconds) is the utmost operational way of dropping person-to-person feast of contamination. In the absenteeism of running water, alcohol emollient may be used except hands are totally soiled. †¢ The native health officer should be instantly notified once an outburst is alleged. †¢ Indicative patients or inhabitants should be cohorted. †¢ If an outburst lasts consider closing the facility to new admittances. †¢ Pretentious staff must be controlled from patient interaction for 48 hours after termination of signs. (management of norovirus, 2004) Control of transmission at the ward level: †¢ Unluckily, by the time the outburst has been documented on a ward, it is probable the majority of vulnerable patients and employee on duty may have been exposed to the infested agent, mainly if vomiting is an extensive symptom. †¢ Gowns, gloves and masks should be worn every time contact with a diseased patient or polluted atmosphere is expected. †¢ Affected areas or floors should be sealed to new admittances and companions to avoid the introduction of other vulnerable individuals. †¢ Airborne spread may be a noteworthy contributor to the sum of cases since projectile retching could possibly create infectious sprays. Air flows created by open spaces or air conditioning could scatter aerosols extensively. Air streams should be reduced. †¢ Affected areas should persist closed until a 48-hour period has passed with no fresh cases amongst patients or staff. †¢ Non-essential employee should be excluded from pretentious clinical zones. †¢ Reducing the risk of communication from sickness may be problematic. (HPS norovirus outbreak, 2013) The following actions may be valuable and are suggested: †¢ Removal of exposed foodstuffs such as plates of fruit †¢ Rapid washing and fumigation of parts where vomiting has happened with a 0.1% hypochlorite solution (made fresh everyday) †¢ Administration of anti-emetics drugs †¢ Full cleaning routine on all pretentious wards. (Norovirus outbreak prevention toolkit, 2012) Specific Nursing care for patients: Personal care: Patients with Norovirus infestation are very sensitive because this disease is very irritating due to its unbearable symptoms. Nurses should provide such patients great personal care. Nurses must give attention to individual patient for hygiene. Symptomatic treatment is provided to such patients so nurses must provide extra care to patients. Nurses should wear Gowns, gloves and masks all the time and should not move outside of ward frequently to prevent spread of the disease. (Caballero, 2014) Proper hand hygiene: Staff should rinse their hands (or use alcohol-based hand disinfectant) whenever they go in and leave a patient/resident area. Staff may be more directed to achieve hand hygiene at the following intervals: †¢ Particular intermissions (e.g., once per hour) †¢ Upon ingoing to a kitchen †¢ After using the washroom †¢ After shaking hands or other bodily contact with colleagues or visitors †¢ After sneezing †¢ After touching the face of patient †¢ After puffing the nose †¢ After rubbing hands on dress and similar actions †¢ After treating raw foods †¢ After usage of dirty kitchen gears and kitchenware †¢ After sweeping, cleaning, or mopping †¢ After a discontinuity †¢ After eating, smoking, or drinking †¢ Before and afterward using PPE e.g. gloves †¢ Before treating the food, particularly ready-to-eat foods and frost. Though, detailed hand-washing is also significant in keeping gloves or other gears from flattering vehicles for transporting microorganisms to the food. †¢ Preceding to handling or administering any oral medicines †¢ After changing diapers †¢ After handling other possibly polluted objects. (norovirus management toolkit) Extra care: Extra assistance is a need of these patients. Patients of Norovirus are disturbed psychologically due to its irritating symptoms so these patients require extra care and time. Vomits should be cleaned immediately and properly to prevent the airborne spread of this disease. Nurse should be present in ward all the time to provide extra care to these patients. Nurses have very significant role in patient care because they are the only staff in the health care facility that takes care of the medications, hygiene and moods of patients and patients with Norovirus require extra care due to their conditions. Bibliography management of norovirus. (2004, feburary). Retrieved from public health: http://www.publichealthmdc.com/environmental/food/documents/ManagementofNorovirusInfectionOutbreaksinHospitalsandNursingHomes.pdf Norovirus outbreak prevention toolkit. (2012, october). Retrieved from public health country of los angeles: http://publichealth.lacounty.gov/acd/docs/Norovirus/NoroToolkit2012.pdf HAIs. (2013, feburary 25). Retrieved from Centres for disease control and prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/norovirus.html HPS norovirus outbreak. (2013, september). Retrieved from national services scotland: http://www.documents.hps.scot.nhs.uk/hai/infection-control/toolkits/norovirus-control-measures-2013-09.pdf Ben Lopman, P. G. (2011, december 11). Environmental transmission of norovirus gastroenteritis §. Retrieved from http://uepa.br/portal/downloads/Lopman2012.pdf Caballero, v. (2014, november 15). role nursing in norovirus outbreak. Retrieved from American public health association: https://apha.confex.com/apha/142am/webprogram/Paper298230.html health protection agency. (n.d.). Retrieved from british infection association: http://www.his.org.uk/files/9113/7398/0999/Guidelines_for_the_management_of_norovirus_outbreaks_in_acute_and_community_health_and_social_care_settings.pdf Mcgeary, t. (2012, feburary 3). how to prevent the spread of norovirus. Retrieved from nursing times: www.nursingtimes.net/how-to-prevent-the-spread-of-norovirus/5040972.article norovirus management toolkit. (n.d.). Retrieved from nevada state health division: http://www.health.nv.gov/PDFs/HSPER/NorovirusManagementToolkitResponsePlan_Version1-1.pdf Sears, T. M. (2008, july 8). Gastrointestinal Flu: Norovirus in Health Care and Long-Term Care Facilities. Retrieved from clinical infectious diseases: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/9/1202.long